Union Pacific Railroad
Commissioned by Congress to go West from Omaha, NB a year after the Civil War began, 1 mile of track=20 miles for company part of Trans-Continental RR, worked on by mainly Irish. Finally met in Ogden, Utah.
Central Pacific Railroad
From Sacramento-->Sierra Nevada, worked on mainly by Chinese laborers, part of 1st transcontinental RR.
Pullman Palace Cars
(1860s) "Gorgeous traveling hotels", wooden cars attached to trains, kind of dangerous
Continent was divided into 4, established by RRS in order to keep on schedule & prevent crashes.
Supreme Court decreed that individual states cannot regulate interstate commerce (federal gov. would have to do it) ~railroad monopoly
Interstate Commerce Act
Prohibited rebates and pools, required railroads to openly publish rates, forbade unfair discrimination, out-lawed charging more for short haul than for a long one, set up ICC.
Alexander Graham Bell
(1876) Invented the telephone, took women from kitchen to switchboard ("number please" women)
incredibly versatile inventor, invented the phonograph, mimeograph, dictaphone, and the moving picture, electric light bulb - made days an average of 2 hours longer
Steel, Scottish, didn't like scabs, great philanthropist, but ruins his reputation after Frik is shot and he doesn't react (vertical integration)
(Carnegie) combining into one organization all phases of manufacturing from mining to marketing. To make supplies more reliable, control quality at all stages, eliminate middlemen's fees
John D. Rockefeller
oil monopoly (horizontal integration), creates the "trust" , forced out weak competitors. Stockholders assigned their stock to the board of directors of his Standard Oil Company.
allying with competitors to monopolize a given market.
devices for controlling bothersome rivals; made by Rockefeller
invented in the 1850s; a method of making cheap steel
United States Steel Corporation
launched in 1901 my Morgan; capitalized at $1.4 billion; America's first billion dollar corporation
first well in Pennsylvania; poured out its liquid "black gold" in 1859; almost overnight, an industry was born that was to take more wealth from the earth, and more useful wealth at that, than all of the gold extracted by the forty-niners and their western successers
Gospel of Wealth
The wealthy (ex. Charles Darwin, William Graham Sumner, Andrew Carnegie) believed that the rich are a product of natural selection; contempt for the poor; rich concluded that those who stayed poor must be lazy and lacking in enterprise
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
forbade combinations in restraint of trade, without any distinction between "good" trusts and "bad" trusts
Henry W. Grady
Editor of the Atlanta Constitution, exhorted ex-Confederates to become "Georgia Yankees" and outplay the North at the commercial and industrial game.
Magazine image of an independent and athletic "new woman" created in 1890s by Charles Dana Gibson, became the romantic ideal of the age.
Yellow Dog Contracts
Also called iron clad oaths, which were solemn agreements not to join a labor union.
National Labor Union
1866, represented a giant bootstride by workers, the union lasted 6 years and attracted over 600,00 members, skilled, unskilled, and farmers, they excluded the Chinese, made small effort to include women and blacks.
Knights of Labor
"seized the torch dropped by the defunct National Labor Union", began in 1869 as a secret society, continued to 1881, sought to include all workers in one big union, refused to thrust their lance into politics, they campaigned for economic and social reform, won a number of strikes for a 8 hour day.
Terence V. Powderly
Irish-American leader of the Knites of Labor in 1885, won a number of strikes for 8-hour day, successful strike against Jay Gould's Wabash Railroad, increase in membership.
May 4, 1886, Chicago, few anarchists wanted over-throw of U.S. government, police advance on Knights protesting authority brutality, bomb thrown, people killed wounded and arrested, decrease in Knights.
leader of AFL, 1866, born in London, reelected president of AFL every year except one from 1886 to 1924.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
association of self-governing national unions, each with own independence, but unified overall strategy, wanted dramatic immediate social reform, took away many KoL members, did not represent unskilled laborers, blacks, and women well.
major goal of Gompers, all-union labor, chief weapons were walkout and boycott.