Ch. 7, 8 and 12 test: Cell Structure, Membrane, Transport

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just know the answers for the exam.

Of the following functions, the glycoproteins and glycolipids of animal cell membranes are most important for:

the ability of cells to recognize like a different cells.

Regarding mitosis and cytokinesis, one difference between high plants and animals is that in plants:

a cell plate begins to form at telophase, whereas in animals a cleavage furrow is initiated at that stage.

During which phase of mitosis do we find chromosomes composed of two chromatids?

from G2 of interphase through metaphase.

All of the following molecules are part of the cell membrane except: (just know which one is not in the cell membrane, the choices other than the one that is not are all probably wrong too).

nucleic acids.

Recent research has indicated that cancer cells:

transform normal cells by altering genes involved in the control of mitosis.

All of the following occur during mitosis except (once again, just know the answer to the actual question, probably all of the choices do not belong).

the synthesis of DNA.

Which of the following are primarily responsible for cytokinesis is plant cells?

Golgi- derived vesicles

Plasmodesmata in plant cells are most similar in function to which of the following structures in animal cells?

Gap junctions.

A biologist ground up some plant cells and then centrifuged the mixture. She obtained some organelles from the sediment in the test tube. The organelles took up CO2 and gave off O2. The organelles are most likely:

chloroplasts.

What triggers the separation of chromatids during mitosis?

activation of anaphase- promoting complex (APC)

According to the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes, which of the following is a true statement about membrane phospholipids?

They can move laterally along the plane of the membrane.

The centromere is a region in which:

chromatids are attached to one another.

To which structure would you assign the function of secretion activities leading, for example, to the formation of a new cell wall in plants?

Golgi vesicles.

If cells in the process of dividing are subjected to colchicine, a drug that interferes with the functioning of the spindle apparatus, at which stage will mitosis be arrested?

metaphase.

Which of the following are prokaryotic cells?

bacteria

The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membranes of some animals:

enables the membrane to stay fluid more easily when cell temperature drops.

Where do the microtubules of the spindle originate during mitosis in both plant and animal cells?

centrosome.

Cytokinesis usually, but not always, follows mitosis. If a cell completed mitosis but not cytokinesis, what would be the result?

a cell with two nuclei.

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

lysosome- protein synthesis.

A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from:

a plant or animal.

In animal cells, hydrolytic enzymes are packaged to prevent general destruction of cellular components. Which of the following organelles functions in this compartmentalization?

lysosome.

Which of the following is not found in a prokaryotic cell? KNOW THE ACTUAL ANSWER TO THE EXAM QUESTION, THEY PROBABLY ALL AREN'T IN THIS INSTANCE

Endoplasmic reticulum.

All of the following are functions of membrane proteins except: (just know the answer to the actual question).

protein synthesis

Which of the following organisms does not reproduce cells by mitosis and cytokinesis: (just know the answer to the actual question).

bacterium.

An organism with a cell wall would have the most difficulty doing which process?

active transport.

All of the structures listed below are associated with the movement in cells or by cells except: (just know the answer to the actual question).

peroxisomes

All of the following cellular activities require ATP energy except: (again, KNOW THE ACTUAL ANSWER.)

movement of 0S into the cell.

In which group of eukaryotic organisms does the nuclear envelope remain intact during mitosis

dinoflagellates and diatoms (b and c)

Cells can be described as having a cytoskeleton of internal structures that contribute to the shape, organization, and movement of the cell. All of the following are part of the cell except: KNOW THE ACTUAL ANSWER TO THE QUESTION.

the cell wall.

Which of the following types of molecules are the major structural components of the cell membrane?

phospholipids and proteins.

Water passes quickly through cell membranes because:

it moves through aquaporins in the membrane.

Which of the following is not a part of the endomembrane system: KNOW THE ACTUAL ANSWER TO THE QUESTION.

mitochondria

celery stalks that are immersed in fresh water for several hours become stiff and hard. Similar stalks left in a salt solution become limp and soft. From this we can deduce that the cells of the celery stalks are:

hypERtonic to fresh water but hypOtonic to the salt solution

Of the following, which is probably the most common route for membrane flow in the endomembrane system?

rough er>vesicles>golgi>plasma membrane.

Which of the following statements is correct about diffusion?

It is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient with the help of engery input is which of the following?

active transport.

Of the following, which cell structure would most likely be visible with a light microscope that had been manufactured to the maximum resolving power possible?

mitochondrion.

Which type of organelle is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids and steroids?

smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

Which of the following is true concerning cancer cells?

They do not exhibit density dependent inhibition when growing in culture, when they stop dividing they do so at random points in the cell cycle, they have escaped from cell cycle controls (all are true)

Taxol is an anticancer drug extracted from the pacific yew tree. In animal cells, taxol disrupts microtubule formation by binding to microtubules and accelerating their assembly from the protein precursor, tubulin. Surprisingly, this stops mitosis. Specifically, taxol must affect:

the fibers of the mitotic spindle.

The kinds of molecules that pass through a cell membrane most easily are:

small and hydrophobic.

All of the following occur during prometaphase of mitosis in animal cells except: KNOW THE ACTUAL ANSWER TO THE ACTUAL CHOICES.

chromosomes are duplicated.

Which structure/ area is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?

rough ER

A patient has had a serious accident and lost a lot of blood. In an attempt to replenish body fluids, a large amount of distilled water was transferred directly into one of his veins. What will be the most probable result of the transfusion?

It will have serious, perhaps fatal consequences because the red blood cells will be hypertonic relative to the body flids and the cells will burst.

What are enzymes called that control the activities of other proteins by phosphorylating them?

kinases.

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