600 - 800: Taika, Nara, and Heian periods. Borrowing from China peaked.
646 - Taika reforms, attempt to revamp administration along Chinese lines, failed.
Aristocracy returned to Japanese traditions.
Peasants reworked Buddhism into Japanese creed.
Emperor lost power to aristocrats and provincial lords.
Mounted troops of the Bushi.
Loyal to local lords, not the emperor.
Regional warrior leaders who ruled small kingdoms/fortresses.
Administered law, supervised public works and projects, collected money, and built private armies.
Era of daimyos: excluded from inheritance.
Often seen as defenseless appendages.
Close to China = More/longer Chinese influence than everyone else.
Separate cultural and political identity.
Confucian exams based on the Chinese models. Bureaucracy admission was exclusive and based by birth over exam scores.
Far from China = Developed its own cultures.
Prepared to get benefits of Chinese culture, but didn't want to lose its own identity.
Had Confucian exams, strong village autonomy, nuclear families.
Women had more freedom and influence than in China.
General customs and culture practices were different.