Veterinary Endocrinology

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4 classes of hormones

Steroids, Amines, Thyroids, Proteins

Protein Hormones are stored as___ in ___

Pre(pro)hormones, Membrane-bound vesicles

What 2 classes of hormones have short half-lives

Proteins and Catecholamines

Catecholamines are synthesized ans stored in the _____

Adrenal Medulla

Roles of the endocrine system

Maintain Homeostasis, Coordinate growth and development, Regulate sexual reproduction processes

ACTH, Growth Hormone, CCK, arginine and vasopressin are examples of

Protein Hormones

Dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and Seretonin (5HT) are examples of

Amine Hormones

Iodothyronines (Thyroxine, T4) are examples of

Thyroid Hormones

Aldosterone, Cortisol, Corticosterone, and estradiol are examples of

Steroid Hormones

Hormones with specificity by enzymatic modification of tyrosine residues

Catecholamines

Progestins, Mineralcorticoids, Glucocorticoids, Androgens and Estrongens are categories of

Steroid Hormones

Hormones derived from cholesterol

Steroid Hormones

Coupling of Iodinated tyrosine residues

Thyroid hormones

Thyroid hormones have intracellular or extracellular receptors

Intracellular

Hormone receptors have High/Low Affinity, Specificity, and Capacity

High Affinity, High Specificity, and Low Capacity

Class of hormones that bind G-coupled protein receptors

Protein Hormone

STAT's are

Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription

Amine hormones act via Intracellular/extracellular Receptors?

Extracellular Receptors

___ Bind to Heat Shock Proteins in the Cell , and regulate transcription

Steroid Hormones

The Pituitary is highly regulated by the ___

Hypothalamus

Adenohypohysis is also known as the

Anterior Pituitary

Neurohypohysis is also know as the

Posterior Pituitary

The Pars Nervosa is formed as an evagination of the

diencephalon

The pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis are parts of the

adenohyphysis

the pars ____ is the major secretory parts of the adenohypophysis

distalis

the pars ____ of the adenohypophysis is made up of non-secretory tissue

tuberalis

the pars nervosa, infundibular stalk, and median eminence make up the

neurohypophysis

The ___ sometimes appears as a residual space in the pituitary

Rathke's Pouch

Pituicytes, unmyelinated axons and fenestrated capillaries are histological components of the

Neurohypohysis

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is also known as what (in mammals)?

Vasopressin

Role of oxytocin

uterine contractions and milk letdown

Role of vasopressin (arginine vasotocin in birds)

water reabsorption in kidney

Acidophils, Basophils, and Chromophobes are histological descriptions of cells in the pars ______

distalis

Acidophils in the pars distalis produce which hormone(s)?

Growth Hormone and Prolactin

Basophils in the pars distalis produce what hormone(s)?

FSH, LH, TSH, and ACTH

Somatotropin is another name for

Growth Hormone

The superior hypophyseal artery is a branch of the ____

Internal carotid artery

What organ has the highest rate of blood flow per unit mass?

Thyroid gland

Follicular cells of the thyroid secrete

thyroglobulin

C-cells (parafollicular cells) secrete

Calcitonin

What stimulation triggers follicular cells to reabsorb thyrogobin and secrete it's components as thyroid hormones

Thyroid stimulating hormone

endocrine organ responsible for maintaining normal blood calcium

parathyroid gland

Chief cells of parathyroid secrete

parathyroid hormone

Part of the adrenal gland that secretes steroids

Adrenal cortex

Part of the adrenal gland that secretes catecholamines

Adrenal medulla

Adrenal Medulla secretes

catecholamines

Adrenal Cortex secretes

steroids

Zona glomerulosa, zona fasiculata, and zona reticularis are layers of the

Adrenal Cortex

The Zona Glomerulosa secretes

Mineral Corticoids

Zona fasciculata secretes

glucocorticoids and gonadocorticoids/androgens

Zona reticularis secretes

glucocorticoids and gonadocorticoids/androgens

Chromaffin cells secrete

catecholamines

Catecholamines are secreted by

chromaffin cells

Hypophysectomy will reduce levels of all pituitary hormones except

Prolactin

Magnocellular neurons produce what hormones

Vasopressin and Oxytocin

What hormone is produced by both magnocellular and parvocellular neurons?

Vasopressin

Parvocellular neurons produce all pituitary hormones except

oxytocin

What enzyme cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin I

renin

Where is angiotensin I coverted to angiotensin II

lungs

Which nuclei contain the cell bodies of magnocellular neurons?

Supraoptic and Paraventricular nuclei

2 types of neuroendocrine neurons

Magnocellular and Parvocellular

Neurophysin I is responsible for folding and transport of

oxytocin

Neurophysin II is responsible for folding and transport of

vasopressin

increased AVP (vasopressin) causes water to be

conserved

Somatotrope cells produce

Growth Hormone

Lactotrope cells produce

Prolactin

Corticotrope cells produce

ACTH - AdrenoCorticoTropic Hormone

Thyrotrope cells produce

TSH - Thyroid stimulating hormone

Gonadotrope cells produce

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Physiologic Function of Growth Hormone

Long bone growth and tissue development

Physiologic function of Prolactin

Mammary development and milk synthesis

Physiologic function of ACTH - Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Growth and secretory activity of adrenal cortex

Physiologic function of TSH - Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Growth and secretory activity of thyroid gland

Physiologic function of FSH - Follicle Stimulating Hormone

Ovarian follicle growth and spermatogenesis

Physiologic Function of Lutenizing Hormone

Ovulation, testis growth, and testosterone synthesis

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