Define the disease:
Inflammation of the pericardium --> either visceral or parietal pericardial layers, but usually inflammation of one causes inflammation of the other. Often associated with other infections of the thoracic cavity or heart
Causes of this disease:
-It may be caused by bacteria, virus, or fungi.
-Can be a component of Rheumatic heart disease.
-Can be caused by severe autoimmune disease such as SLE (lupus).
-The inflammation can also be caused by metabolic waste products that accumulate in the blood in chronic renal failure leading to Uremia.
-Trauma and Radiation injury may also cause a sterile inflammation, along with open-heart surgery
The pericardium resembles "bread and butter" taken apart.
The fluid of this pericarditis is yellow/clear. Usually from Viruses
Purulent Exudates (Suppurative aka Bacterial)
Pericardium is filled with pus. Usually from Bacteria.
Stimulation of the in growth of fibroblasts that further contribute to the fibrous adhesion
Fibrous scarring of the pericardial sac may completely encase the heart and prevent its expansion in diastole.
Constrictive pericarditis (from tuberculosis)
What type of exudate
What type of pericarditis?
What looks similar to "Bread and Butter" being torn apart in this type of pericarditis?
Define the disease
An acute inflammation of the myocardium typically caused by viruses.
Primary disease or due to a secondary disorder (i.e. Rheumatic fever)
Over 80% of cases are caused by viruses, most often Coxsackie B virus, but can also be parasites (Toxoplasmosis)
Coxsackie B virus
This virus is most common to cause Myocarditis
Lymphokines (IL I, IL II, and IL VI - in viral myocarditis)
These cell signaling proteins are supposed to kill viruses in myocarditis. However, they cause a lot of collateral damage to the heart tissue resulting in heart failure
When patients with this disease die, their hearts are usually flabby and dilated. Name the disease!
Once a biopsy is taken of this cardiac disease, there is no specific treatment that can be done. Just supportive measures.
Name the disease:
Patients usually present with mild fever, shortness of breath, malaise, and if severe and chronic, show signs of heart failure (tachycardia, peripheral cyanosis, and pulmonary edema).
Affects two times more MALES than females.
Despite extensive inflammation, most patients recover from this disease although a few die from Congestive Heart Failure or arrhythmias.
Histologically, a patchy, diffuse interstitial infiltrate principally composed of T-Lymphocytes and macrophages. The inflammatory cells often surround individual myocytes with focal or patchy acute myocyte necrosis.
acute viral myocarditis
Name the disease
Acute viral myocarditis
What is the name of this nodule found in the diseased myocardium?
RHD (Rheumatoid heart diease aka Rheumatic myocarditis)
What is the disease that is commonly seen with this nodule found in the myocardium?
*** hint: these nodules are aschoff bodies
Coxsackie B virus
What is the virus probably causing this influx of lymphocytes in the myocardium?
Epicardial Pinpoint Microabscesses (anytime you see abscesses like this THINK Staph aureus)
This heart is septic. They have myocarditis, pericarditis. What are these lesions on this heart called?
What type of myocarditis is this?
Uh-oh, this guy is not supposed to be in the heart. What type of myocarditis is this?
Viral Myocarditis (interstitial)
What general type of myocarditis is this?