Christianity & Byzantine

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Christianity & Byzantine... Semester One EHS AP ART HISTORY

Symbols of the Four Evangelists

Matthew- Angel or Man
Mark- Lion
Luke- Ox
John- Eagle
(all winged)

Catacombs

Jewish and Christian burial places
Often contained wall art

Loculi

Niches in walls for the burial of the poor in catacombs

Cubicula

Chapels in catacombs for the wealthy, often contained a sarcophagus

Iconic

Tangible way of showing intangible concepts (ex. time or divinity)

Lunettes

Semicircular Arches

Orant Figures

worshipers with outstretched open arms

Syncretism

Artists assimilate images from other traditions to give them new meaning

The Annunciation

Mary finding out she is pregnant

The Visitation of Mary

You're pregnant? I'm pregnant!

What's needed in a Synagogue?

Bench and Niche

Duro Europos

-Synagogue
-Syria
-Influenced by Rome
---Narratives
---Hierarchy of Scale
---God is always represented by hands
---Primitive Looking

What did fear of idolization cause?

-Nothing life size or free standing
-Avoids anything too realistic
-No nudes

Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus

-359 AD
-Marble
-Shows roman influence
--Jesus riding into Palm Sunday, similar to Titus Triumphal Procession
--Jesus n center, surrounded by Peter and Paul, with roman gods at his feet

After Christianity was legalized...

Depictions of Jesus began to parallel those of Roman emperors
-Purple
-Shepard hook became staff
-Halo

Apostle

Any important early christian teacher

Iconostasis

A screen bearing icons, separating the sanctuary of many Eastern churches from the nave

Iconoclast

Banning of all icons by Emperor Leo III
-much art was destroyed

Justinian and Theodora

Emperor and his wife
-expanded empire
-held back Persians
-Theodora commissioned a ton of art and architecture

Pantocreator

creator/ ruler of the world

Diptych/ Triptych

Two or three panels hinged together
Sculpture
Usually portable

Psalter

Books of Psalms
Often sold for use in private homes of the wealthy

Tresserae

small piece used in mosaics

Narthex

Lobby of Synagogue or Cathedral

Basilica

Roman building used for public administration, later used as church by Christians and Jews

included:
Nave: Aisle on both sides separated by colonnade
Apse with Torah Shrine facing Jerusalem
Narthex: Vestibule or lobby of the synagogue

Cathedral

Bishop Church
(means Bishop's Chair)

Apse

a semicircular part of a church that projects from its main axis

Axial Design

Built on an Axis, more popular in Rome, draws worshipers forward in a line towards the apse.

Central Design

More vertical axis, usually having a dome. Most often used as tombs or baptistries.
(round)

Pendentives

Concave, spherical triangles between arches that rise

Squinches

Diagonal lintel stretched across a corner to hold a dome

The Good Shepherd

-425 AD
-Mosaic
-Ravenna
-Example of changes after Christianity is legalized

Old St. Peter's Basilica

-Rome
-320 CE
-Axial Desgin
-Marks burial place of St. Peter
-Inspired other churches
-Characterizes Christian Basilica
-Uses columns taken from Roman buildings (very symbolic)

Santa Costanza

-Rome
-337-351 AD
-Central Planning
-Mausoleum of Constantina, Constantine's daughter.
-Ambulatory: Barrel vaulted passageway (women kept here during worship)
-Covered in mosaics which show pagan influence.
-12 columns = 12 apostles
-Mosaics in Santa Costanza mistaken for Pagan worship of Bacchus by Putti: (Naked Cherubs) harvesting grapes to make wine.

Mausoleum and Oratory of Galla Placidia

-Ravenna
-Oratory: small chapel
-Combines axial and central design in a cruciform, or cross shape.
-Beautiful internal mosaics placed in lunettes formed by barrel vaults.

Hagia Sophia

Church of Holy Wisdom
-Built on site of a church burned down during revolt against Justinian.
-Built to show imperial power and Christian glory (one in the same to Justinian)
-Designed by Mathematician, Anthemius of Tralles and a physicist, Isidorus of Miletus.
-first time pendentives are used
-small windows around dome create halo of light

San Vitale

-Built for a martyr by Justinian
-Centrally planned Octagon
-Plain exterior, typical of early Byzantine
-Windows made to light interior decoration.

San Vitale Mosaics

-Colored tesserae (gold, stones, glass)
-Laid on gold or silver backing to create eternal space
-Cut at angle to catch light or sunlight.
-Much brighter than roman mosaics
-made to look like heaven, like they are floating

St. Mark's Cathedral

-1063
-Venice
-Geometric: Domes placed at each cross section
-Each dome has its own axis.
-Mosaics are lit by windows at base of the dome.
-Iconostasis separates apse from the nave.
-Gold background, icons appear to float.
-Hold's relics of the evangelist Saint Mark.

Paris Psalter

-10th Century
-Religious expression
-Elegance of wealth (of Byzantine empire)
-Rich artistic decoration
-Medieval and classical influence.

David Composing the Psalms

Lots of Pagan influence
-Animals gathering = Orpheus charming animals with music.
-Melody, a muse behind David.
-Column with ribbon =Greek/Roman funeral practice.
-Classical appearance and style.

Virgin of Vladimir

-Icon
-11-12th Cent.
-Moscow
-Based on belief that St. Luke first painted images of Mary and Jesus from a vision.
-Thought to be protection

The Infant Virgin Mary Caressed by her Parents

-Mosaic
-Church of Christ in Chora
-Constantinople
-1315-1321
-After crusades icons began possessing more human emotions

St. Basil's Cathedral

-1555-1561
-Moscow
-even after empire fell, art still spread

Harbaville Triptych

-Ivory
-950 AD
-Medieval practice of putting labels/names with figures.
-Deeis "entreaty" of John the Baptist, Mary and Jesus
-Begins movement toward medieval art

Saint Michael the Archangle Diptych

-Early sixth cent.
-Ivory
-Copied Roman carving method used for notices/announcements.

Old Testament Trinity

-Andrei Rublyov
-1410
-Used mathematical proportions to create ideal figures, like Greece.
-Circle is the basis for his creation "Old Testament Trinity,"
-Wood Panel
-Shows the trinity using 3 divine individuals

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