during this time there was a huge outbreak of killings due to a huge level of supoerstition. people often exaggerate about the amount of casualties. it was primarily elderly women who were accused.
1689 Bill of Rights
It stated that no law could be suspended by the king. It also stated that no taxes could be raised or army maintained without parliamentary consent. Thirdly it said that no subject (however poor) could be arrested and detained without legal process.
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who was Queen of England from 1553 to 1558. She was the wife of Philip II of Spain and when she restored Roman Catholicism to England many Protestants were burned at the stake as heretics (1516-1558)
The name of the dynasty of French kings that began with Henry IV.
Group of German territories, ruled by the Hohenzollern family, that became one of Europe's most powerful states in the seventeenth century. Its military strength was supported by its hereditary landowners who were granted autonomy in their territories.
Successor of Cardinal Richelieu and his bad attempts to increase royal revenue and the state lead to the Fronde
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
eldest son of Charles I; returned to England after 11 years of exile because military establishment reestablished monarchy; Declaration of Indulgences -> sympathized with Catholics and Puritans - no laws against them
Decline Of Spain
The rise in population coupled with inflation led to a weakening of Spanish industry and emigration. The expulsion of Jews and Moors in 1492 also contributed to the decline, as they were productive members of the economy.
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
he United Provinces emerged as the Dutch Republic; remained in Spanish possession and was not formally recognized as independent until 1648
Henry VIII's son of his third wife Jane Seymour; nine years old at the time of his accession to the throne and the real control passed to the council of regency; Archbishop Cranmer moved the church of England in a Protestant direction
Frederick the Great Elector
Leader of Prussia, Fredrick wanted to have a strong army, so he established the General War Commissariat; it built up the growing and training for the army by taxing the Prussian.
Fredrick gained power by making a deal with the nobles. A trade for unlimited power and excused taxes for the nobles, for the political control and rule of Fredrick
historians viewed it as the end of the 17th century struggle between king and Parliament; deposing one king and establishing another Parliament demolished the divine right theory of kingship and confirmed its right to participate in the government; Parliament didn't have complete control but had an unquestioned role in affairs of the state
a royal German family that provided rulers for several European states and wore the crown of the Holy Roman Empire from 1440 to 1806
first Tudor king of England from 1485 to 1509. head of the house of Lancaster in the War of the Roses; defeated Richard III at Bosworth Field and was proclaimed king; married the daughter of Edward IV and so united the houses of York and Lancaster
son of Henry VII and King of England from 1509 to 1547. His divorce from Catherine of Aragon resulted in his break with the Catholic Church in 1534 and the start of the English Reformation (1491-1547)
German royal family who ruled Brandenburg from 1415 and later extended their control to Prussia (1525). Under Frederick I (ruled 1701-1713) the family's possessions were unified as the kingdom of Prussia.
royal officials sent by Richelieu in 17th century France who were sent into the provinces to execute the orders of the central government; they farther strengthen the crown
Italy from Spain to Austria
Ivan the Terrible
first ruler to take the title of tsar, expanded territories of Russia eastward after finding westward expansion blocked by Swedish and Polish States, crushed the power of the Russian nobility, dynasty ended in 1598 and was followed by a resurgence of aristocratic power known as the Time of Troubles
the Tudor's dynasty became extinct with Queen Elizabeth's death therefore starting the Stuart line of rulers with her cousin James VI of Scotland who became James I of England (the son of Mary); James didn't fully understand the laws, institutions and customs but adopted the idea of divine right and tried to make the Anglican Church Catholic; Parliament disagreed with the idea of divine right and believed that the monarch and Parliament together ruled England as a balanced polity; Parliament fought back by refusing James requests for money; showing that Parliament had the power over the purse
devout Catholic - caused religious conflict between King & Parliament; Catholics get high positions in government, army, navy, and universities
members of the Prussian landed nobility, used by Frederick William to staff his General Directory, his efficient bureaucracy
idea that after the Napoleonic wars; peace could best be reestablished in Europe by restoring legitimate monarchs who would preserve traditional institutions
Limits of absolutism
promiscuous, fun & games; created a grand & majestic spectacle at Versailles; "Sun King" = source of light for all his people; policy-making machinery of government part of his home - kept control
New Model Army
part of the English Civil war; important to Parliament's success; composed primarily of extreme Puritans known as the Independents who believed they were doing battle for the Lord.
leader of the new model army
Orange vs. States General
Parliament of Paris
...the most important court in France; jurisdiction over half of the kingdom; its members formed the nobles of the robe (nobles of the robe led the first Fronde)
Peace of Westphalia
ensured that all German states including the Calvinist ones were free to determine their own religion; jurisdiction over half of the kingdom; its members formed the nobles of the robe (nobles of the robe led the first Fronde
Peter the Great
Russian tsar. emperor of russia. Divided Russia into 8 provinces (and later into 50), demanded that all members of the landholding class serve in either military or civil offices, adopted western mercantilistic policies to help economic growth, his decisions benefited women by changing the laws that held them in seclusion modernized and westernized Russia to the extent that it became a great military power
Assemblies of nobles elected the king and carefully limited royal power, the Sejm (Polish Diet) was a 2 chamber assembly in which landowners completely dominated the few townspeople and lawyers who were also members
Power of the Purse
Parliament had the power of money over the king; the king would have to make parliament happy in order to receive money
Princes of the blood
a person who legitimately (following traditions of pass kings) descended in the male line for the monarch of the country
Queen Elizabeth I
Protestant daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Kept both Catholics and Protestants in her country and kept politics and religion separate. With her came the Book of Common Prayer, a book where it combined both Catholic and Protestant beliefs.
Revoking the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes is a decree from King Henry IV that established Catholicism as the official religion of France but gave freedom of worship to Huguenots.
was chosen by the national assembly as the new tsar (Ivan the Terrible)
a tax on seacoast towns to pay for coastal defense; collected annually by kings officials throughout England and used to finance other government operations besides defense; it aroused opposition from middle class merchants and landed gentry: they objected the kings attempt to tax without Parliament's consent
Peter the Great founded this town; located in the far north of Russia to rival the splendors of Versailles.
James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II
The mystique of power and protocol
mystery of powerful people, "otherworldly" people, Louis 14th invited people to Versailles; super politeness, never sit down if the royalty in the room is standing, instructions on how to formally act around "royalty", sense of being included, strict hierarchy, mystery of being refined/polite/knowing the way to do things
This was the re-establishment of the monarchy in England under Charles II. Both houses of Parliament were restored but the religious tensions still were present in England
Thirty Years' War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a battle between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
where the royal court was located; personal household of king and place where subjects came to find favors and offices for themselves & their clients; main area where rival aristocratic factions jostled for power
William and Mary
hired to overthrow England after firing James II, they had to follow rules, Parliament is called every 3 years whether the king calls it or not, limited monarchy, Parliament is given more political power