known for the transatlantic cable
invented the mechanical reaper
invented the steel plow
Elias Howe & Isaac Singer
Samuel F.B. Morse
invented the telegraph
cotton gin (1791)
interchangeable parts (gun factory)
steam/high pressure engine
1st automated flour mill
1st prototype of locomotive
What was the "American Dream"?
innovation & moving forward
all regarded material advance as the fruit of American republicanism; proof of virtue & promise of country
--> South unwilling to change
no gov't interference in economic affairs; however gov't did much to assist capitalism
Why was the North more likely to industrialize?
railroads & canals/transportation tended to connect west to north instead of south; understanding of economic interests btwn N & W
willingness to change, unlike South
advocated Erie Canal System; got $7 million for project
governor of NY
What two waterways became linked as a result of the Erie Canal?
Lake Erie (Buffalo) & Hudson River (Albany)
invented the steamboat - brought steam engine from England
Who was Samuel Slater?
"Father of the American Industrial Revolution"
memorized machinery designs & industrial secrets of England & brought to U.S.
1st American textile factory
What two places did the Cumberland/National Road link?
Mississippi R. & Atlantic Ocean
What was the group of laborers that was responsible for construction of railroads in the North & South?
North - immigrants
South - slaves
How did the construction of railroads differ from Europe?
hasty & unsafe - many collisions, highly dangerous
1 track instead of 2 --> collisions
tracks on snow --> dangerous during spring thaw
How did steamboat building differ from Europe?
many explosions, unsafe, highly dangerous
Americans still pushed for speed even at own risk
How were inland freight rates affected by improvements in transportation?
decreased - more efficient --> cheaper --> more people could afford
What was happening to the distribution of wealth during this period?
gap between rich & poor growing
What did each region specialize in?
NE & middle states: finished factory goods
West: wheat & corn
South: cotton, tobacco, rice
What caused the rise of the factory system?
factory labor - many jobs available w/o apprenticeship; replaced household manufacturing
transportation - new techniques & inventions to transport goods
no national borders (unlike Europe) - flow of goods & ideas throughout country & states
What was a corporation?
equivalent of "joint-stock" companies - vast sums needed for new factories
would survive in legal theory if founders/owners died; like real person
What were shares of stock?
small ownership of company people invested in
What was limited liability?
investors not responsible for company's debts
What was the Waltham/Lowell system like?
Francis Cabot Lowell's town (1814)
women was work force
initially, not meant to be permanent work force; Lowell thought women would eventually move on, marry, have children; eventually children would work in factory as well
company built houses, churches, communities for workers & families
boarding houses - edu, food, shelter, religion, etc.
promised edu, religions, same $ (for dowry)
work 12 hour shifts w/ half hour breaks for meals
What was mass production? What effect did immigrants have on this?
skill of machine rather than skill of worker, only general intelligence needed
cheaper, more people could afford goods
increase in immigrants - cheap & replaceable --> lowered wages, took jobs, make work forces permanent
What were the push/pull factors for immigrants coming to America?
legends of wealth & opportunity, unfilled land, gave hope
safe place to spread democratic influence not tolerated in home countries (ex. Carl Schuz, political refugee)
revolutions, dictatorships, wars in home countries
Irish - potato famine; main food of Irish poor, unable to break free from Eng. rule
German - floods & storms destroying crops & livestock, harsh winters, scarce foods, high prices, revolution against domination of Austria/Prince Metternich after Napoleonic Wars
Generally, how did the immigrants affect America during the Industrial Revolution?
labor force - canals, railroads, factories, farms
Irish - known for strength, courage, willingness to work
What were aspects of "free" labor?
physical & sexual abuse
dangerous & unhealthy working conditions
no social mobility
poor living conditions
no education - "key to success"
lack of free time
BREAK UP OF FAMILY UNIT
What were aspects of slave labor?
long hours, but seasonal
threat of family being broken apart
cramped living conditions
-breeding of slaves
no social mobility
tied to plantation - no skills
What was the "balloon frame"?
invented in 1833
nails held together light, yet strong & sturdy, frame.
fast, light, portable
replaced heavy timber frame used to make buildings, mostly houses in the West
What group's motto/name was "The Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner"?
What was the "middle passage"?
horrendous voyage of Africa to U.S. that slaves had to endure
Why did the South defend slavery?
feared change - wanted to keep agricultural society & keep rights/power in gov't
opposed internal improvements - feared federal gov't would interfere w/ their property (slaves) as well, esp. w/ North propagandizing abolitionist movement
used pro-slavery propaganda to defend
Who was the political figure that defended slavery? What did he call it?
John C. Calhoun
called slavery "positive good" instead of "necessary evil"
claimed slavery as form of protection, blacks needed paternalistic guidance since they were an inferior race
What was the "king" of all crops?
over tobacco, rice, hemp, sugar
What was the peculiar institution?
How did slaves preserve/practice their culture?
celebrated marriages, births; mourned deaths
went to church - some became Christians, some mixed Christian & African aspects of culture & religion
own church, service, and preacher later in the day - dance, sang, own African religion
What was the effect of slavery on white Southerners?
liked to think superiority over blacks
white workers, farmers, & immigrants could not compete w/ competition of slaves
remained agricultural; power in slave owners, minority
colony dependent on North
What were the main sources of nativism?
cultural fear - language, clannishness, assimilation, TAKEOVER
social problems - ex. poverty, crime
idealogy - ex. socialism
What were the characteristics of the antebellum South?
1. primarily agrarian
2. economic power shifted from "upper" to "lower" south
3. "Cotton is King"
4. very slow development of industrialization
5. rudimentary financial statement
6. inadequate trasportation system
RELUCTANT TO CHANGE
What were U.S. laws regarding slavery?
1. U.S. Constitution
- 3/5 compromise
- fugitive slave cause
2. 1793: Fugitive Slave Act
3. 1850: stronger fugitive slave act
Why was slavery less efficient in the U.S.?
high cost of keeping slaves from escaping
Goal: raise the "exit cost" --> Slave patrols --> Black Codes
What were the Black Codes?
- slave defined by blood
- employment required of freedmen
- no assembly
- assumed to be agricultural workers
- no reading/writing
- segregation in public places
- violaters subject to whipping or branding
What were some examples of slave resistance?
1. "SAMBO" pattern of behavior - charade against whites: slow production, stupid; however led to epitome of black stereotype
2. Refusal to work hard
3. Isolated acts of Sabotage
4. Escape - Underground Railroad
5. Slave Rebellions - Nat Turner (1831) (VA)