The most outstanding preacher of the Great Awakening. He was a New England Congregationalist and preached in Northampton, MA, he attacked the new doctrines of easy salvation for all. He preached anew the traditional ideas of Puritanism related to sovereignty of God, predestination, and salvation by God's grace alone. He had vivid descriptions of Hell that terrified listeners.(Sinners in Hands of Angry God)
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."
It was a revival of religious importance in the 17th century. It undermined older clergy, created schisms, increased compositeness of churches, and encouraged missionary work, led to the founding new schools. It was first spontaneous movement of the American people (broke sectional boundaries and denominational lines).
John Peter Zenger
Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.
First African American female writer to be published in the United States. Her book Poems on Various Subjects was published in 1773, pioneered African-American literature. One of the most well- known poets in America during her day; first African American to get a volume of poetry published.
American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove.
He was a friendly Frenchman who moved to New York to start a farm. He loved America so much that he wrote a book called letters of an American farmer, about how special the colonies were.
John Knox took ideas similar to those of Luther's and Calvin's and started a reformation in Scotland, beginning the Presbyterian Church
Established religion in southern colonies and New York; weakened by lackadaisical clergy and too-close ties with British crown
A group of restless people who fled their home in Scotland in the 1600s to escape poverty and religious oppression. They first relocated to Ireland and then to America in the 1700s. They left their mark on the backcountry of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. These areas are home to many Presbyterian churches established by the Scots-Irish. Many people in these areas are still very independent like their ancestors.
Towns set up by puritan missionaries for Indian converts to spread puritan Christianity, the first of which, Natick, was founded in 1651. As the Indian population in the east waned, assimilation as "Praying Indians" became the only option besides retreating farther west.
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
King William's War
One of the four wars fought between France, Spain, England and France's indian allies for control of North America. No major battles fought but brought terrifying indian raids., Also known as the War of the league of Augsburg, it lasted from 1689-1697. It was the third time the major European powers crushed the expansionist plans of King Louis XIV of France.
Queen Anne's War
The second of the four imperial wars that were fought between Britain, France and Spain. It took place from 1702-1713. Though many Spanish colonial towns were captured and burned by English forces, American colonists met with military failure creating a feeling of dependence on Britain. The war ended with Peace of Utrecht.
War of Jenkins' Ear
Land squabble between Britain and Spain over Georgia and trading rights. Battles took place in the Caribbean and on the Florida/Georgia border. The name comes from a British captain named Jenkins, whose ear was cut off by the Spanish.
John Singleton Copely
The only really well known colonial painter. He painted the Portrait of Paul Revere and Watson and the Shark. He was a Loyalist who eventually returned to England.
Connecticut artist who did the first painting of the singing of the Declaration of Independence
Charles Wilson Peale
He was one of the outstanding painters of the early American republic, and he painted more than a thousand portraits, mostly of American Revolution leaders. He founded the nation's first museum and first art school. His 1772 portrait of George Washington is recognized as the first authentic likeness of Washington. He continued to add paintings of national leaders like John Adams (1791-1794), Alexander Hamilton (1791), and James Madison (1792). His likenesses were realistic, accurate in detail, and sensitive to the sitter's personality.
An Anglo-American self-taught painter of historical scenes around and after the time of the American Revolution, West also painted the royal family of King George III and co-founded the Royal Academy of Arts
old and new lights
In the early 1700's, old lights were simply orthodox members of the clergy who believed that the new ways of revivals and emotional preaching were unnecessary. New lights were the more modern- thinking members of the clergy who strongly believed in the Great Awakening. These conflicting opinions changed certain denominations, helped popularize missionary work and assisted in the founding educational centers now known as Ivy League schools
A British law passed in 1773 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade by bribing and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws led to revolution.
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
It was a movement during the 1760's by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists. Lower class citizens took up arms against corrupt colonial officials who took advantage of the system.