surgical tech certifying exam study guide Anatomy section

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which of the following structures is located in the alveolar processes?

teeth

the portion of the stomach surrounding the lower esophageal sphincter is called the

cardia

the islets of langerhans secrete

insulin

the area in the duodenum where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct empty is called the

ampulla of vater

the primary function of the gallbladder is to

store bile

the plicae circulares, microvilli and villi are

structures that increase surface absorption area in the small intestine

the first part of the small intestine is the

duodenum

the appendix is attached to the

cecum

the double layered apron like structure that hangs from the lower border of the stomach is the

greater omentum

the main function of the large intestine is to

reabsorb water and electrolytes

a chemical reaction that provides energy by the breakdown of food molecules is called

catabolism

which of the following substances is the body's preferred source of energy

carbohydrates

the process by which glucose is stored in the liver and skeletal muscle cells as glycogen is

glycogenesis

the structure that binds the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall is the

mesentary

the salivary glands located in the front of the ear that become inflamed and enlarged during mumps are the

parotid

the catabolism of fats priduces which of the following substances

ketone bodies

vitamins A, D, E and K are absorbed in the

intestine

the organ that lies eosterior to the greater curvature of the stomach and is connected by a duct to the duodenum is the

pancreas

when body cells require energy what molecule is broken down

ATP molecule

the outer layer of the intestine is the

serosa

the cricoid cartilage is a

ring of cartilage forming the inferior walls of the larynx

the passageway for foods and liquids into the digestive system and for air into the respiratory system is the

pharynx

the larynx is located between the

pharynx and trachea

the vocal cords are licated in the

larynx

which structure has three divisions consisting of naso, oro, and layngeal

pharynx

the function of the trachea is to

conduct air to and from the lungs

the space between the vocal cords is called the

glottis

the nasal cavity is divided into two portions by the

septum

the structure that drains excess tears to the nasal cavity, causing the nose to run is the

nasolacrimal duct

the cartilaginous nasal septum lies upon which none

vomer

the structure that connects the middle ear and the throat allowing the eardrum to vibrate freely is the

eustachian tube

another name for the tympanic membrane is the

eardrum

the winding cone-shaped tube of the inner ear is the

cochlea

the nasal sinus located between the nose and the orbits is the

ethmoid

whch ossicle of the middle ear covers the oval window

stapes

the large leaf-shaped laryngeal cartilage that acts as a trap door over the larynx is the

epiglottis

which part of the ear is responsible for equilibrium

semicircular canals

a term referring to a waxy secretion in the external ear canal is

cerumen

which of the following structures is not an ossicle of the middle ear

vestibule

the fluid within the membranous labyrinth is called

endolymph

in the physiology of hearing, sound waves collect in the ______and pass on to hit the__________

external auditory canal, tympanic membrane

striated voluntary muscle tissue is found in the ___________muscle tissue

skeletal

the white, tough layer of the eye that gives it its shape is the

sclera

the layer of the eye that is clear, covers the iris and contains no blood vessels is the

cornea

the layer of the eye that absorbs light rays and nourishes the retina through its numerous blood vessels is the

choroid

which muscle alters the shape of the lens of the eye to accommodate near or far vision

ciliary muscle

what structure regulates the amount of light entering the eye and assists in obtaining a clear image

iris

intraocular pressure is primarily dependent on

aqueous humor

at the junction of the sclera and cornea is a venous sinus known as the

canal of schlemn

the smooth intrinisic muscle that alters the shpae of the eye lens is the

ciliary body

the ciliary body is part of which layer of the eye

vascular

a capillary network of blood vessels within the renal cortex that functions as a filter is called the

glomerulus

the triangular area of the bladder that is formed by the two openings of the ureters and the opening of the urethra is known as the

trigone

gerota's fascia is located

around the kidney

the kidneys are positioned

retroperitoneally

the functional unit of the kidney responsible for removing waste and regulating fluid is the

nephron

the most abundant extracellular ion necessary for the transmission of impulses is

sodium

the prostate gland secretes

alkaline fluid

the first step of urine production in which fluids and dissolved substances are forced through a membrane by pressure is called

glomerular filtration

sperm are produced by the

seminiferous tubules

the cup like extensions of the kidney pelvis that collect urine from the pyramids are

calyces

the notch on the kidney through which the ureters exit is the

hilum

which of the following is the principal male hormone produced in the testes and responsible for sexual characteristics

testosterone

the comma shaped organ that lies along the posterior border of the testis is the

epidiymis

the only artery in the body that carries unoxygenated blood is the

pulmonary artery

teh pacemaker of the hrart is the

SA node

which arteries are formed by the bufurcation of the abdominal aorta

iliac

the process by which blood cells are formed is known as

hemopoiesis

which of the following arises from the left ventricle

aorta

the pancreas lies behind the sotmach and duodenum in the right and left upper quadrants and is divided into ______portions

three

which organ is responsible for the synthesis of man of the coagulation factors

liver

the atrioventrucular (AV) valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle is the

bicuspid

the inner layer of an artery is known as the

intima

which of the following vessels arises from the right ventricle

pulmonary artery

which of the following vessels do not empty into the right atrium

pulmonary veins

the large artery found behind the knee is the

popliteal

the large artery that arises from the left side of the aortic arch and descends into the arm is the

subclavian

the medial malleolus is part of which bone

tibia

the sutures of the skull are examples of

synarthrosis

which characterisitic does not belong to a synovial joint

synchondrosis containing hyaline cartilage

which of the following is an example of a saddle joint

thumb and trapezium

smooth sustained contractions produced by several very rapid stimuli are called

tetanus

the dense white fibrous covering around bone is the

periosteum

an example of a short bone is the

wrist

a large bony process found on the femur is a

trochanter

the foramen magnum is found in which bone

occipital

an example of a flat bone is the

cranial bones

the acromion is part of which bone

scapula

the olecranon is part of which bone

ulna

which of the following is not a carpal

styloid

the only bone in the body that does not articulate with another is the

hyoid

the shaft of a bone is known as the

diaphysis

teh extremity or end of a bone is known as the

epiphysis

another name for spongy bone is

cancellous

the vertebrae are examples of what type of bone

irregular

teh area of a bone where growth occurs until early adulthood is the

epiphyseal plate

what bones from the greater portion of the sides sand roof of the cranial cavity

parietal

the structure that serves as the socket for the head of the femur is the

acetabulum

where are cruciate ligaments found in the knee

lateral and medial in the knee

a triangular muscle that abducts the arm and covers the shoulder is the

deltoid

the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and the vastus intermedius are muscles that extend the legs and are known as the

quadriceps

the muscle that flexes and supinates the forearm and covers the anterior portion of the upper arm is the

biceps brachii

the muscle that forms the bulk of the upper calf is the

gastrocnemius

the mandible articulates with the maxillae

temporal bone

the thoracic spine contains how many vertebrae?

12

the inner lining of the uterus is the

endometrium

the walls of the vagina are lined with

mucous membrane

all of the following ligaments maintain the position of the uterus except the

ovarian ligament

the perineum is the

area between the vagina and the anus

fertilization of the ovum generally occurs in the

fallopian tubes

the hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics is

estrogen

the structure that provides an exchange of nutrients and wastes between the fetus and mother and secretes the hormones necessary to maintain the pregnancy is

placenta

in the ovary, a granular yellow body that develops after the extrusion of an ovum is the

corpus luteum

the finger like projections on the end of the fallopian tubes are

fimbiae

the funnel shaped open distal end of each fallopian tube is called a/an

infundibulum

the portion of the uterus above the level of the uterine tubes is called the

fundus

the elevated adipose tissue over the symphysis is called the

mons pubis

the ovary is attached to the uterus by the

ovarian ligament

the middle layer of the uterus composed of muscle is the

myometrium

the outermost covering of the brain and spinal cord is the

dura mater

the brain contains four fluid filled spaces called the v

venricles

the area of the brain that controls respiration is the

medulla oblongata

all thought takes place in the

cerebral cortex

the basic unit of the nervous system is the

neuron

the cranial nerve that contains special fibers for hearing as well as for balance is

VIII

the peripheral bervous system contains

cranial and spinal nerves

the muscle tone, coordination of voluntary muscles and balance are controlled in the

cerebellum

the largest part of the brain is the

cerebrum

which cranial verve emerges from the medulla passes through the skull and descends throught the neck region into the thorax and abdominal region

X

the cranial nerve that carries motor fibers to the tongue and sensory impulses from the tongue to the brain is the

hypoglossal

which cranial nerve can be tested for sensations of pain touch and temperature with the use of a safety pin and hot and cold objects

V

which cranial nerve carries impulses for sense of smell

I

neurons that conduct impulses to the cardiac muscles are part of the

autonomic nervous system

the contraction of involuntary muscles are controlled by the

autonomic nervous system

the neuroglia are cells that

support and protect

teh cytoplasmic process of a nueron that conducts impulses away from the cell body is a/an

axon

which area of the brain produces subconscious skeletal muscle movements required for coordination and balance

cerebellum

the part of the brain that is a continuation of the spinal cord and forms the inferior protion of the brain stem is the

medulla

the fifth cranial nerve is also called the

trigeminal nerve

which of the following neuroglia are star shaped and attach nerons to their blood vessels

astrocytes

where is cerebrospinal fluid formed

ventricles

the diencephalon is composed of the

thalamus and hypothalamus

the wisp like roots of the verves at the end of the spinal cord are called the

cauda equina

meuron axons that are surrounded by a multilayer white phospholipid segmented covering are called

myelinated neurons

chemicals released by neurons to increase or inhibit impulses are called

neurotransmitters

the bridge connecting the spinal cord with the brain is the

pons

the inner lining of the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract is composed of

epithelium

ninety six percent of the bodys mass is made up of

oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen

the essential component of hemoglobin is

iron

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