Bio Quiz #1 - Concepts & Connections Ch 4

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List three structures found in animals cells but not in plant cells

flagellum, lysosome, centriole

List three structuresfound in plant cells but not in animal cells

chloroplast, central vacuole, cell wall

The ultrastructure of a chloroplast could be best studied using a

light microscope

The cells of an ant and a horse are, on average, the same small size; a horse just has more of them. What is the main advantage of small cell size?

Small can better take up sufficient nutrients and oxygen to provide for their needs.

Which of the following clues would tell you whether a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

whether or not the cell is partitioned by internal membranes.

Which of the following structures is NOT directly involved in cell support or movement?

flagellum

In which cell would you find the most lysosomes?

White blood cell that engulfs bacteria

In which cell would you find the most mitochondria?

muscle cells in thigh of long-distance runner

In which cell would you find the most smooth ER?

ovarian cell that produces the steroid hormone estrogen.

In which cell would you find the most rough ER?

pancreatic cells that secretes digestive enzymes

In which cell would you find the most tight junctions?

cell in tissue layer lining digestive tract.

A type of cell called a lymphocyte makes proteins that are exported from the cell. You can track the path of these proteins within the cell by

rough ER, golgi, transport vesicle, plasma membrane

What are three cellular components shared by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

DNA (genetic material, ribosomes, plasma membrane)

Briefly describe the three kinds of junctions that connect animal cells & compare their functions.

Tight junctions form leakproof bonds. ANchoring junctions link cells to each other but allow materials to pass between them; they form strong sheets of cells. Communicating junctions are channels that allow flow from cell to cell.

What general function do the chlorplast and the mitochondria have in common? How are their functions different?

Both process energy. A chloroplast converts light energy energy to chemical energy (sugar molecules). A mitochondrion converts chemical energy (food molecules) to another form chemical energy (food molecules) to another form of chemical energy (ATP).

What general function do the chloroplast and mitochondrion have in common? How are their functions different?

Different conditions and conflicting processes can occur simultaneously within separate, membrane-enclosed compartments. Also, there is increased area for membrane-bounded enzymes that carry out metabolic processes.

How does a eukaryotic cell benefit from its internal membranes?

Cilia may propel a cell through its environment or sweep a fluid environment past the cell.

Describe two different ways in which the motion of cilia can function in organisms.

Cilia may propel a cell through its environment or sweep a fluid environment past the cell.

Explain how a protein inside the ER can be exported from the cell without ever crossing a membrane.

A protein inside the ER is packaged inside transport vesicles that bud off the ER and then join to the Golgi apparatus. A transport vesicle containing the finished protein product then buds off the Golgi and travels to joins with the plasma mebrane, expelling the protein from the cell.

Is this statement true or false? "Animal cells have mitrochondria; plant cells have chloroplasts."

Part true, part false. Both animal & plant cells have mitochondria.

The ciliated lining of your respiratory system sweeps mucus with trapped debris out of your lungs....

Both cilia & flagella rely on the same structural 9+2 organization of microtubules and dynein motor proteins. A reasonable explanation is that a hereditary defect in this mechanism results in sperm that do not swim and cilia that do not sweep mucus out of lungs.

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