Biochem

Created by Sabrina_Aubin 

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compounds

Formed when atoms bond, bonds are created by sharing or transfer of electron

covalent bonds

Sharing of electrons between atoms. May be a single bond, double or triple

ionic bonds

Occur when an atom donates one or more of their electrons to another atom

ion

(+) when losing electrons and (-) when gaining electrons; molecule having a charge

polar covalent bond

Electrons are shared, but not equally. Might have slight (+) and slight(-) charged

organic compounds

Contain carbon, since carbon is a unique and important element it can form strong and stable covalent bonds. (Bonds 4 times)

inorganic compounds

compounds that do not contain carbon

molecular formulas

Show the number of atoms that make up a Cpd. ex.H2O,CO2...

structural formulas

Use same symbols as molecular but show how they are bonded

polymers

Large molecules consisting of identical or similar building-block molecules, strung together

monomer

The individual building block of a polymer

water

A polar molecule in which makes up 50-90% of all organisms

solvent

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

acid

Contains H+ ions

bases

Contain OH- ions

hydrophobic

Water hating

hydrophillic

Water loving

atoms

Composed of subatomic particles called protons, neutrons and electrons

elements

Pure substances that are made of a single kind of atom

periodic table

Arranges elements into periods(horizontal rows) and groups (vertical columns) according to their atomic number

mass number

Total number of protons and neutrons

atomic mass

Mass of an average atom of an element, in atomic mass units

molecules

Are combinations of 2 or more atoms

valence electrons

Those electrons that occupy the outer shell (valence shell)

cation

When a neutral atom gives up an electron and becomes positively charged

anion

Neutral atom gains electrons and becomes negatively charged

ionic compound

Substances composed of cations and anions

hydrogen bonds

Attraction between polar molecules containing Oxygen, Hydrogen and Nitrogen

aqueous solution

means solute is dissolved in water

concentration

Ratio of the quantity of solute to the quantity of solution

neutralization

An acid reacts with a base to produce a water and salt

pH scale

Scale from 0-14, 0 meaning a strong acid and 14 being a strong base

buffer

Solution containing chemicals that can neutralize small amounts of acids and bases

biochemistry

Study of the chemistry of living things including the chemical substances and processes involved

organic chemistry

Study of organic molecules

functional groups

Groups of atoms that gives compounds specific chemical properties

macromolecules

Very large organic molecules

hydrocarbons

Organic molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen, can be formed into chains or rings

carbohydrates

Contain C,H,O, almost always in the 1:2:1 ratio, they are a source of energy for most orcanisms

monosaccharides

Simple sugars

disaccharides

Double sugars, made of 2 simple sugars by a dehydration synthesis

polysaccharides

Complex carbohydrate, many simple sugars that are linked

cellulose

Structural molecule in cell walls, not digestible by humans

glycogen

Energy storage in the liver of animals

starch

Energy storage in plants

lipids

nonpolar molecules containing C, H, O in no set ratio; eg. phospholipids, steroids, waxes

triglyceride

lipid molecule containing one glycerol and three fatty acids

saturated fat

A fat containing only single bonds between carbon atoms

unsaturated fat

A fat containing some double bonds between carbon atoms

waxes

lipid molecules commonly used in plants and some animals as waterproof coatings

phospholipids

lipid molecules similar to triglycerides, however there is an additional functional group (phosphate)

steroids

Lipid molecule composed of four carbon rings

proteins

An unbranched polymer of amino acid, contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; source of energy; needed by tissue for repair and growth; made up of 20 amino acids.

amino acid

A protein subunit

peptide bond

a bond between amino acids in a protein molecule

polypeptide

a short chain of amino acids

protein synthesis

the production of proteins

enzymes

a protein that speeds up chemical reactions

catalyst

a chemical that speeds up chemical reactions

denaturation

a change in the 3D shape of a protein caused by high temperatures or harsh chemical environments

nucleic acids

store hereditary information in DNA and decode hereditary information in RNA

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