(genetics) the process of transfering genetic material from one cell to another by a plasmid or bacteriophage
(genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
Made of subunites of nucleosomes
protein molecules around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins
Each one of these contains 8 histones, a DNA double helix wrapped around them.
the two exact copies of DNA that make up each chromosome. They are attached at the center by a centromere.
Matching Chromosomes that are similar but not identical
alternative versions of a gene
The proteins used to cut DNA molecules at specilic places so that scientists can isolate pieces with the desired genes.
Series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs its normal functions
stage of interphase in which DNA is replicated
stage of interphase in which cell duplicates its cytosol and organelles
Asexual cell reproduction.
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
protein structures which move the chromosomes during cell division.
a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes
The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms. It produces 4 daughter cells
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
reproductive cells, have only half the number of chromosomes as body cells
The place in Meiosis where chromosomes pair and join up.
the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis
production of a chemical compound by a living organism
proteins that act as biological catalysts (lower activation energy). They are synthesized at the ribosomes.
The place on the enzyme that fits the substrate. Together they form an enzyme-substrate complex.
The particular substance that fits in an enzyme's active site. Together they form an enzyme-substrate complex.
Reactions that require energy.
a reaction that releases energy in the form of heat