Lymphatic, Respiratory, and Digestive System

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Lymphatic tissue

reticular connective tissue containing lymphocytes

Lymph

interstitial fluid in lymphatic vessels. Fuc: returns excess filtration from capillaries-to circulation, transports dietary lipids, filters bacteria

Lymphatic flow

from tissue to veins. Pumped by muscle & respiratory pumps like venous return

Primary lymphatic organs

Red bone marrow & thymus, stem cells divide

Secondary lymphatic organs

lymph nodes, spleen & lymphatic nodules, immune responses occur.

Thymus

Immune responses, atrophys w/ age, posterior to sternum, medial to lungs and superior to heart.

Lymph nodes

scattered throughout the body (600), concentrated near mammary glands, axilla & groin. Filter lymph, trap foreign substances. Macrophages & lymphocutes destroy most foreign substances

Spleen

left hypochondriac. Most damaged organ in abdominal trauma. Between stomach and diaphram. Destroys worn or defective blood cells & platelets. Stores platelets, attacks foreign substances in blood. If this is removed the red bone marrow and liver will take over.

Pulmonology

study of the lungs

Lungs

main function-gas exchange, take in O2 and eliminate CO2

Pulmonary ventilation

breathing, moving air into and out of the lungs

Inspiration/Inhalation

air flows into the lungs

Expiration/Exhalation

air flows out of the lungs

External respiration

gas exchange between alveoli and blood

Internal respiration

gas exchange between blood and cells

Upper respiratory tract

nose, pharynx

Lower Respiratory System

trachea, larynx, bronchi and lungs

Conducting zone

tubing that brings air to where it needs to go

Respiratory zone

gas exchange. Sacs and alveoli

Anatomical dead space

areas that do not do gas exchange

Nose

traps dust, detect olfactory stimuli, modify vocal sounds

Pharynx

funnel shaped tube from internal nares to larynx

Nasopharynx

upper

Oropharynx

middle, between uvula and top of epiglottis

Laryngeal or laryngopharynx

connects with both esophagus & larynx

Larynx

voice box. short tube of cartilage

Thyroid cartilage-anterior

"adams apple"

Epiglottis

upper leaf shaped piece. during swallowing epiglottis covers opening to trachea

Cricoid cartilage

forms inferior wall

False vocal cords

upper

True vocal cords

lower

Trachea

lined w/ pseudostratified ciliated mucous membrane, dust protection, C-shaped cartilage rings keep lumen open

Primary bronchi

enter the lungs along w/ blood vessels, lymphatic vessels & nerves

Secondary bronchi

one for each lobe of the lung

Lungs

two organs R & L, surrounded by pleural membrane

Parietal pleura

attached to diaphram & thoracic wall

Visceral pleura

attached to lungs

Alveoli

150 million in each lung. Cup-shaped out pouch of sac

Alveolar macrophages

"cleaners" eat & stay in one area

Inspiratory reserve volume

inspiration beyond resting

Expiratory reserve volume

still a little air in lungs that leaves the lungs

Lung capacities

# looked @ to measure fitness of lungs

Eupnea

normal breathing. Highly variable in pattern

Internal Respiration

Occurs throughout body, O2 diffuses from blood to cells.

HCO3-

bicarbonate ion. one of the bodys most important ions.

Valsalva manuver

bearing down

Proprioception

stimulates the start of activity. calls for more O2

Apnea

sudden pain

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. main cause is smoking

Chronic bronchitis

inflimation of the bronchi, excessive mucus is produced

Emphysema

alveoli get destroyed, less oxygen can be exchanged

Pneumonia

infection of the alveoli, can be viral/bacterial

TB

tuberculosis, highly contagious bacterial disease

Lung Cancer

leading cause of cancer death in US. 85% is related to smoking

Cystic fibrosis

inherited disease that caused excess mucus production in lungs & eventually causes lung disease

SIDS

sudden infand death syndrome. death of infant <12 months of age due to hypoxia while sleeping on stomach. comes from underdeveloped medulla oblongata

Gastroenterology

study of the stomach and intestines

GI tract

gastrointestinal or alimentary canal. tube that goes from mouth to anus

Accessory organs

teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gullbladder, and pancreas

Serosa or visceral peritoneum

goes all around digestive system

Mouth

formed by cheeks, hard & soft palate & tounge

Uvula

"hangy down" part, durring swallowing uvula prevents entry into nasal cavity

Parotid salivary gland

inferior & anterior to ears (by cheeks)

Submandibular salivary gland

in floor of mouth, medial & inferior to mandible

Sublingual salivary gland

beneath tongue and superior to submandibular salivary gland

Saliva contains

99.5% water, salivary amylase, mucus and other solutes.

Crown

above gums

Root

1 or more parts embedded in socket

Neck

between crown and root near gum line

Enamel

covers crown

Dentin

majority of interior of tooth

Pulp cavity

nerve, blood vessel & lymphatics

Mechanical breakdown

chewing, mastication

Salivary amylase

chemically breaks down polysaccharides (starch)

Bolus

a small round soft mass of chewed food

Upper esophageal sphincter

skeletal muscle, controls entry to esophagus

Cardiac or lower esophageal sphincter

smooth muscle, regulates entry to stomach

Deglutition

swallowing, voluntary, bolus forced into oropharynx

Epiglottis

seals off larynx while eating

Stomach

J-shaped enlargement of tract, serves as a mixing chamber and holding reservoir, very elastic and muscular

HCl

hydrochloric acid, kills bacteria

Rugae

folds in stomach

Chyme

when bolus leaves stomach it is liquid

Emesis

vomiting

Pancreas

behind stomach, pH 7.1-8.2, neutralize stomach acid and dilutes chyme

Pancreatic amylase

breaks down starch

Pancreatic lipase

breaks down fats

Nucleotidases

RNAase and DNAase

Gull bladder

pear shaped organ on front and under liver. stores bile

Bile

breaks down fat, important for emulsifying fats, basic

Liver

maintains blood glucose, lipid metabolism, excretion of bilirubin, processes drugs and other chemicals, store fat soluble vitmins, make vitiman D

Dudodenum

first part of the small intestine

Jejunum

middle part of the small intestine

Ileum

last part of the small intestine

Ileocecal sphincter

at the end of the small intestine

Circular folds

increase surface area

Villi

finger like projections of mucosa, increase surface area for absorption, include lacteals for lipid absorption

Large intestine

also known as colon, where feces is made, where millions of good bacteria live. ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid, few folds, smooth

Defecation reflex

caused by rectum. farting

Diarrhea

insufficient removal of water by colon.

Constipation

too much water removed by colon

Jaundice

yellowish color to skin caused by a buildup of bilirubin,can indicate liver disease

Hepatitis A

spread by fecal contamination, mild

Hepatitis B

spread by sexual contact or contaminated blood, can cause cirrhosis or liver cancer

Hepatitis C

simmilar to hep. B but no vaccine

Peptic ulcers

craterlike lesions (sores) that develop in the GI tract, can cause bleeding

Cirrhosis

scarring of the liver

Gallstones

can block flow of bile from gallbladder

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

pain and alternating bouts of diarrhea/constipation

Inflammatory bowel disease

inflammation of any part of GI tract. Crohm's disease is one type.

Colorectal cancer

one of the leading causes of death from cancer, even though it's slow growing.

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