Devout catholic ruler whom controlled spain & it's colonies parts of italy, austria and the netherlands also ruled germany
The son of Charles V, He ruled Spain until his death in 1598. Spain's financial problems grew as he pursued his leadership position as head of the Counter Reformation. He sent the Spanish Armada against England in 1588, but it ended in disaster. Ruled spain america's & colonies and spanish netherlands
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement that the religion of each german state is selected by its ruler
brother of Charles V; became the holy roman emperor after Charles divided his lands; Catholic Hapsburg king; suppressed protestantism causing 30 years war
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
the great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588 ended in disaster
Spanish painter, whose works distorted human figures and depicted deep Catholic faith
court painter to Philip IV; painted nobility and attention to detail, painting different materials
The main character in Miguel de Cervantes' book about the changing times in the early 1600's. He was a man who did not like how the Middle Ages were ending and people were becoming more materialistic, so he set of to become a knight and bring back chivalry to Spain
problems weaken empire
inflation caused by population allowed market prices to go up; but finished loosing value. Silver lost value and never had a middle class
problems weaken empire
Guilds made spain products have a higher cost than imported products, bought everything from elsewhere therefore no economic progress.
(1566-79) Caused for religious reasons; Protestant Region in Northern Spanish Netherlands/Dutch Republic; they revolted against Spanish authority for political and religious independence from Spain
Tulips came to Europe from turkey around 1550. People went wild over the flowers and began to buy rare varieties. Soon prices began to rise due to demand. Soon people were spending all their savings on the flowers and taking out loans to buy more. Tulip Mania reached a peak between 1633 and 1637, after which it soon declined.
william of orange
Ruler of the Netherlands who led a revolt for independence against Hapsburg Philip II of Spain.
the ______ northern provinces became independent
dutch trading empire
economy was based on trade; they replaced italians because atlantic routes became more important than Mediterranean
Rembrandt van Rijn
This man was a great Dutch artist of the 1600's. He painted portraits of middle class citizens. he used sharp contrast of light and dark to draw attention to his focus. he is the most well known artist of the 1600's.
Dutch painter renowned for his use of light (1632-1675)
the belief that a monarch recieved authority to rule from god and therefore could not be questioned
Causes of __________:
1) Religious and territorial conflicts created fear and uncertainty.
2) The growth of armies to deal with conflicts caused rulers to raise taxes to pay troops.
3) decline of feudalism
4)rise of cities & middle class
5)loss of church power