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Reparations

As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.

Stephen Douglass

He was a democrat who created popular sovereignty and strongly supported the Union and expansion. He was influential in the Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

Luistania

In 1915 one of the german U-boats sunk this passenger ship, killing 128 Americans. It was one reason why the U.S. decided to enter WWI

Egalitarianism

The doctrine of the equality of mankind and the desirability of political and economic and social equality

Militarism

A political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests and for diplomacy

Great Awakening

A sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. They believed that their faith and love needed strengthening. Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. Protestant churches were forming.

Slavery

African Americans were treated harshly and not as if they were human. They were forced to do severe, unwanted work for no pay.

Progressivism

Reform efforts that begun in the early 1900s, whose aims included improving social welfare, moral improvement, economic reform, fostering efficiency, and political reform.

Jefferson Davis

Former senator of Mississippi elected as the first President for the Confederate States.

Dred Scott

A black slave who lived in a Northern free state, but was a slave. In 1847 he sued the federal court for his freedom, but they ruled against him saying he was property.

Lexington/Concord

The first armed fights of the Revolutionary War in which British general Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.

Impeachment

The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the president by a majority vote for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."

Monopoly

Exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices. Even though it is supposed to be controlled so it doesn't happen.

Ulysses S. Grant

The general of the Union Army leading the Union to victory in the Civil War. Later, he became the 18th President.

Legislative Branch

The branch of government containing the Congress that has the power to make laws

Samuel Adams

Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence

Suffrage

The legal right to vote, extended to African Americans by the Fifteenth Amendment, to women by the Nineteenth Amendment, and to people over the age of 18 by the Twenty-Sixth Amendment.

Nationalism

A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's nation. Most feel willing to give up their lives for their country.

Isolationism

Abstention from alliances and other international political and economic relations; American foreign policy.

Gettysburg

Large, decisive battle in the American Civil War, took place in July 1863. Union General Meade led an army to victory against General Lee's Confederate army. Abraham later gave one of the most famous speeches.

Bull Run

The first bloodshed at a creek 25 miles from D.C. The confederates dominated and beat back the Union and they retreated to D.C.

Ratification

Formal approval to the effectiveness of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty. Before the Constitution could be put into effect, it had to be approved by 9 of 15 states

Assimilation

The process of take new ideas (culture, information, etc.) into an existing cognitive structure. Process of blending into society by adopting the new culture

Imperialism

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially. This led to the creation of a number of European empires which extended around the world.

Fourteenth Amendment

Ratified in 1868, this prevents states from denying rights and privileges to any person born or naturalized in the U.S. This caused most slaves to be known as citizens.

King George III

The British monarch who led in the Revolutionary War that wanted to enforce the proclamation and also keep peace with Britain's Native American allies. Kept 10, 000 soldiers in the colonies.

NAACP

A civil rights organization set up in 1909 to oppose racial segregation and discrimination by nonviolent means.

John Wilkes Booth

April 1865, he shot Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theatre. He escaped on a waiting horse and fled town then was found several days later in a barn in Virginia. He refused to come out so the barn was set on fire. He was later shot and killed

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Heir to Austrian throne assassinated on June 1914 during good-will mission in Sarajevo, sparking WWI. This caused Germany and other Austro Allies to declare war on Serbia and its allies

Plessy v. Ferguson

(1896) Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation was not in violation of the 14th amendment so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal

Upton Sinclair

Muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago.

League of Nations

This was an organized group for discussing political and diplomatic crises so their grievances could be settled without starting a war. It was to promote peace and cooperation between the nations.

Checks and Balances

A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power

Manifest Destiny

This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.

Popular Sovereignty

The concept that political power rests with the people who express themselves through voting and free participation in government. People were allowed to vote on whether the state was a slave or free state.

Secession

The withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil War.

Yorktown

(1781) The last major battle of the war in which Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The was over, and colonists were victorious

Abolition

The movement to make slavery and the slave trade illegal. The Union and Abraham Lincoln pushed this dramatically.

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