Praxis II (0041/0049) Language and Linguistics: Grammar: Sentences

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sentence

expresses a complete thought; example: My father travels around the country.

in

already inside

into

tell about the movement from the outside to the inside

between

for two

among

three or more

different from

to tell about differences

of

do not use in the place of "have"

declarative

sentence that makes a statement; uses a period; example: Janelle is painting a picture of an imaginary place.

interrogative

sentence that asks a questions; uses a ? mark; example: Who could ever create a more imaginative scene?

imperative

sentence gives a command; uses a period; example: Think about all the uses for artwork.

exclamatory

sentence expresses strong feeling; uses an ! point; example: Who could ever create a more imaginative scene!

four kinds of sentences

declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory

Include a ____ and a predicate in every sentence.

subject

Use a ____ and a subject in every sentence.

predicate

subject

whom or what the sentence is about; example: One PERSON described her experience.

predicate

tells something about the subject; example: One person DESCRIBED HER EXPERIENCE.

complete subject

all the words in a subject; example: MY TWO OLDER BROTHERS stared at me silently.

simple subject

is the main word or words in a subject; example: My two older BROTHERS stared at me silently.

Sometimes the complete ____ and simple ____ are the same; example: XAVIER stared at me silently.

subject

complete predicate

all the words in a predicate; example: Everyone in my house IS KEEPING A SECRET.

simple predicate

is the main word or words in a predicate; example: Everyone in my house IS KEEPING a secret.

Sometimes the complete ____ and simple ___ are the same; example: Everyone SMILES.

predicate

compound subject

two or more simple subjects with the same predicate; example: JON congratulated the actress. STACY congratulated the actress. --> JON and STACY congratulated the actress.

compound predicate

two or more predicates with the same subject; usually joined by AND or OR; example: We WILL FIND the card catelog or WILL ASK the librarian for help.

compound sentence

combines two or more simple sentences; can be joined by a comma and connecting words such as AND, OR, or BUT...or by a semi-colon; example: A crater can be formed by a bomb, or it can be formed by meteorite.

conjunction

joins a words or groups of words; can be AND, OR, or BUT; can be used to combine sentences; example: Janet lives in Austen, AND Elizabeth lives in New York.

interjection

a word or a group of words that expresses strong feeling; you can separate an interjection from the rest of a sentence with either an exclamation point or a comma, depending on the strength of the feeling; examples: Whew! That was close! Oh, no!

fragment

does not express a complete thought; example: Tells an interesting story.

run-on sentence

strings together two or more sentences without clearly separating them; example: This picture is his it is not yours.

expanded

adding details to sentences to make them more clear and more interesting

phrase

a group of words that work together; example: from the kitchen window

clause

a group of words that have a subject and a predicate; some stand alone; others cannot; example: Everyone should know about medical emergencies.

independent clause

expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a simple sentence

dependent clause

contains a subject and a predicate, but doesn't express a complete thought or stand alone; example: AFTER THEY LEARNED ABOUT TOXIC WASTE.

complex sentence

consist of one independent clause and at least one dependent clause

subordinating conjuction

AFTER, IF, SINCE, UNTIL, WHETHER, or WHEN connects the two clauses into one sentence; example: The senators left the capitol AFTER THE SESSION WAS ADJOURNED.

indirect object

is a noun or a pronoun that follows an action verb; example: The vet sent ME a reminder to bring my dogs in for their shots.

appositive

a noun that identifies or explains the noun or pronoun it follows; usually set off by commas; example: Robert Miller, the JUDGE, sentenced the criminal to prison.

predicate nominative

noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames the subject; example: Susan B. Anthony was an early FEMINIST. (noun) / It was SHE who led the woman's suffrage movement to victory. (pronoun)

compound predicate nominative

Predicate nominatives sometimes contain more than one noun. These are called ____. example: Mahatma Ghandi was a Hindu religious LEADER and a social REFORMER in India.

predicate adjective

an adjective that follows a linking verb and modifies the subject of a sentence; example: A freshly baked pie is DELIGHTFUL to the eye and nose.

compound predicate adjective

Predicate adjectives sometimes contain more than one adjective. These are called ____. example: The job applicant seems HONEST and RELIABLE.

direct object

a noun or pronoun that follows an action verb; they tell or what receives the action; example: I inherited a pet DEER from the former residents of my house. (tells what) or The surgical team asked DR. HABIB to explain the procedure. (tells who)

noun clause

subordinate clause used as a noun; examples: WHAT YOU SAY is true.

participle

used as an adjective; it is a form of a verb used as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun; example: The RUNNING water was moving dangerously fast.

participial phrase

contains a participle and acts as an adjective; examples: They arrested the man DRIVING THE CAR.

gerund

verb + ing used as a noun; example: SWIMMING is a good exercise.

gerund phrase

consist of a gerund and related words; example: SWIMMING IN THE LAKE is a good exercise.

infinitive

present tense of a verb preceded by the word TO; it may be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb; example: TO EXERCISE is a healthful habit.

dangling participle

To correct a ____, place the participial closer to the word it modifies; example: (incorrect: PLAYING SOLITAIRE, at the table sat a bored young man. / correct: At the table sat a bored young man PLAYING SOLITAIRE.)

split infinitive

use an adverb to avoid these; example: (incorrect: I wanted to SLOWLY SEE the city. / correct: I wanted TO SEE the city SLOWLY.)

modifier

Place a ___ as close to the word it describes; example: (incorrect: The man looks like a spy WITH THE HAT. / correct: The man WITH THE HAT looks like a spy.)

subordinate clause

contains a subject and a predicate, but does not express a complete thought, and cannot stand alone; often begins with a subordinating conjunction, such as AFTER, ALTHOUGH, BECAUSE, BEFORE, IF, SINCE, WHEN, or WHILE; example: People became more sensitive to pollution problems AFTER THEY LEARNED ABOUT TOXIC WASTE.

adjective clause

modifies a noun or a pronoun; majority of these clauses are introduced by relative pronouns such as WHO, WHOSE, WHOM, WHICH, and THAT; example: She lost the ring THAT YOU GAVE HER.

nonrestrictive clause

is descriptive or explanatory and can be omitted without changing the essential meaning; example: My father, WHO WAS COACHING THE BASEBALL TEAM, met us at the ballpark.

adverb clause

is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb

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