Ancient India- Indus River Valley Civilization

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subcontinent

large, triangular landmass that juts into the Indian Ocean

monsoon

2 seasonal winds that shape the pattern of life:
winter-brings dry air from mts (northeast)
summer-brings wet rain, downpours from sea (southwest)

3 bodies of water surrounding India

Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal

Harrapa

major city located in Pakistan, what the Indus Valley settlements were named after ("the Harappan civilization"), ruins are great examples of urban planning

Mohenjo-Daro

important Harrapan city, near Arabian Sea, ruins are great examples of urban planning

citadel

fortress built on a brick platform over looked each city, serves as gov&religious center

Harrapan Civilization (life, language, religion)

most people were farmers, used pictograms, worshiped many gods

Aryans

Indo-European group who invaded the Indian subcontinent from the north around 1500 BCE and might have destroyed the Harrapans,

rajah

tribe's cheif of Aryans

Sanskrit

ancient India's spoken lang which had the same roots as English, Spanish, French, German

epic

long poems celebrating their heroes

Vedas

"Book of Knowledge" which formed the basis of Aryan religious practices

Varnas

system of 4 main social classes:
Brahmans-priests
Kshatriyas-warriors, rulers
Vaisyas-common people
Suaras-servants
Bottom: not part of classes~ Pariahs- untouchables or outcasts

jati

smaller Varna groups according to occupation

the Caste System

system that Europeans named where everyone had a rank, similar to Varnas

Pariahs

skinned animals and tanned their hides for leather, untouchables

dharma

duties the men of each varna had to do

India's two epics

Mahabharata and Ramayan were highly regarded in religion, collected writings by several authors

beg. of Hinduism

based on diff. beliefs and practices, many of which had roots from Vedas and India Epics

universal spirit

soul present within all living things- Buddhism

3 main Hindu gods

Brahma-creator
Vishnu-preserver
Siva-destroyer

reincarnation

rebirth of soul

karma

principle that determines the cycle of rebirth- Hinduism

ahimsa

practice of nonviolence towards all living things- hinduism

moksha

release from pain and suffering of rebirth after rebirth- Hindu.

Upanishads

last books of Vedas collected from 800 to 400 BCE and teach about a universal spirit present within all life, shown throughout personal journeys and philosophies- Buddhism

Jainism

religion founded by Mahavira that rejected sacrifices and rigid social divisions and placed a special emphasis on ahimsa

the Buddha

Siddhartha Guatama, the person who founded Buddhism, the enlighted one

Four Noble Truths

Buddha's religious philosophy was laid out here, book of religious laws

Eightfold Path

Buddha believed that if people followed this they would reach nirvana and gain freedom from cycle of rebirth

nirvana

state of freedom from the cycle of rebirth

stupa

large stone mounds put over the bones of Buddhist holy people

Chandargupta Maurya and Mauryan Empire

ruled from 321 BCE-301BCE, followed Jainism, rigid bureaucracy, spy network, farming, mines, weapons, physicians, gave up power to be monk

Asoka

Chandargupta Maurya's grandson who ruled from 274 to 232 BCE, renounced war, became Buddhist

Chandragupta I

built the Mauryan Empire, was NOT related to Chandragupta Maurya

Chandargupta II

leader of Gupta Empire who ruled from 375 to 415 CE, expanded empire greatly while increasing its status culturally, Hindu, he died and empire collapsed b/c he was one of the last descendants of Gupta Empire

Gupta Empire

founded by Chandragupta which formed the Gupta Dynasty, base of this kingdom was Magadha (known as india's Golden Age)

arabic numerals

symbols for the #s 1-10 which came from the traders in Middle East

Sutras

early sacred writing- Buddhism

urban planning in Harrapan cities

oven-baked bricks, laid their cities out in a grid pattern, containing a sewer system

soap stone steals

harrapans used to identify merchandise

Asoka's public projects

free hospitals, veteranarians, fine roads, shade trees for travelers comfort, rest homes

items exported during Gupta Empire

gems, spices, cotton

3 rivers

Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra

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