AP-Psychology Study Guide

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1.A group of students perceived a stationary point of light in a dark room as a moving object. When asked later how far the light had moved, their responses increased in similarity as they heard each others' estimates. This outcome was a demonstration of

Conformity

2.Gina sometimes experiences periods of major depression. At other times, she is extremely talkative and active, appears to be in a euphoric mood, goes days without sleeping, and reports that her thoughts are racing. The most likely diagnosis of Gina's condition is ___________.

Bipolar disorder

3.Billy always returns after leaving home to see if he locked the door. He always locks the door, but he thinks about whether or not he locked the door until he has checked. Billy's behavior is an example of __________________________.

Obsessive- Compulsive disorder

4.Tension from an inconsistency between an individual's attitudes and behavior is ________________.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

5.The section of the brain considered most vital to the initiation of feeding behaviors is the __________.

Hypothalamus

6.In your own words describe the purpose of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)

Classification and Diagnosing

7.A researcher shows a picture to a volunteer; the picture features a woman in the foreground and an older man, looking over her shoulder, in the background. The volunteer is asked to "tell a story" about the picture. The researcher assumes that the volunteer will project his own unconscious feelings into the story he tells. This is an example of which type of test?

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

8.Aversion therapy to eliminate undesirable behaviors is most likely to be used by which types of therapists?

Behavior Therapies

9.A bundle of nerve fibers that interconnects the two brain hemispheres is the_______________.

Corpus Callosum

10.Which gland of the endocrine system controls the activity of other glands?

Pituitary Glands

11.What is the result of stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system?

accelerated heartbeat, raise in blood pressure, slow digestion, raise blood sugar, and cool with perspiration, making a person alert and ready

12.The strongest support for the hereditary basis of personality comes from research techniques that use_______________.

Clinical cas studies of the frequency of a personality trait in the family

13.The ability of the human visual system to barely detect a candle flame at a distance of about 30 miles on a clear, dark night is an example of ________________.

absolute threshold

14.When members of a group who tend to agree on an issue become more extreme in their opinion after the issue is discussed, what has taken place?

Group Polarization

15.In neurons, neurotransmitters are released at the _______________.

Presynaptic Nerve Terminal

16. A therapist who uses systematic desensitization to help a child overcome a white rabbit phobia will probably begin treatment by________________.

Hierarchy of fear or progressive relaxation

17. A person leaves her current home, moves to a new location, takes on a new identity, and has little or no memory of her former life. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), what would the diagnosis be?

Dissociative fugue

18.A child has learned that her grandparents ignore rather than reward her tantrums. Which of the operant principles are the grandparents using to control the child's behavior?

Positive Reinforcement

19.The school psychologist observes Johnny in class, noting the number of times he disrupts the class on a particular day. The school psycholigists then instructs the teacher to ignore Johnny when he misbehaves and to praise him when he is good. This method of handling Johnny is an example of which psychological approach?

Behavioral

20. In the treatment of patients, which psychologists make no attempt to offer formal diagnosis, advice, or interpretation of patients' unconscious motives?

Humanistic

21.Kevin laughs when others are injured by his thoughtless pranks and shows little regard for the feelings or well-being of others. He has been in trouble with the police and other authority figures a number of times. Which disorder would best describe Kevin's behavior?

Antisocial Personality disorder

22. Which psychoactive drugs works by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin?

Anti-depressants

23.Although it can produce undesirable side effects, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been shown to be most effective in the treatment of _______________.

Severe Depression

24. What are the symptoms and possible causes of schizophrenia

symtoms- mom whose schizo was severe and long lasting, birth complication, separation, short attention span and poor muscle condition, disruptive or withdrawn behavior, poor peer relations
Causes- Genetics, Brain:increased receptors for the neurotransmitter dopamine, enlarged, fluid filled cerebral cortex, and abnormal activity in frontal lobes, thalamus and amygdala, Pregnancy

25.Dr. Williams is a therapist who believes that his client's depression is caused by internalized anger and other intrapsychic conflicts. Of which psychological perspective is Dr. Williams most likely a proponent?

Psychoanalytic

26. Please describe a humanistic explanation for an anxiety disorder

anxiety results when an individual experiences a gap between his ideal self and safety needs

27.According to Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which needs must first be met before belongingness and love become important?

Psysiological and safety needs

28. When Stanley Milgram asked psychiatrists to predict how far participants would go in administering shock in his original demonstration on obedience to authority, what did the psychiatrists find?

If they thought the authority figure and testing center were legit. Also if they couldnt see victim

29.Jessie and a friend are driving in rush-hour highway traffic when a car suddenly cuts in front of them in order to reach an unmarked exit ramp. Jessie's passenger points out that the circumstances may have required the other driver to do so, while Jessie loudly criticizes the personal qualities of the other driver. Jessie's response is best explained by

Fundamental Attribution Error

30. Janet believes her brother Ralph is depressed because he has a distorted view of reality: he has unrealistically negative thoughts. Which of the following theories comes closest to describing Janet's orientation to abnormal behavior?

Cognitive

31. The five-factor theory of personality

optimism, consientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism

32. What did Alfred Adler suggest is the primary driving force in the development of personality?

analyzing collective unconscious ; Primary driving force in a person's striving for superiority

33.Most professionals from the United States rate themselves better in performance and competence than their average peer. This is an example of_________________.

Self-serving Bias

34. Which classic study forms the basis for social (observational) learning?

Albert Bandura and the bobo doll

35.Provide an example of social inhibition?

conscious or subconscious constraint by a person of behavior of a social nature

36.The quotation below is consistent with the views of which perspective of psychology?
"Give me a dozen healthy infants, well formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to be any type of specialist I might select—doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief..."

psychoanalytic

37.Computer-generated color images of the brain that provide information about glucose metabolism are produced by which techniques (tests/scan)?

PET

38.Which type of psychologist would be interested primarily in studying whether people behave differently in groups than they do when alone?

Social Psychology

39.An individual survives a period of captivity and exhibits behaviors that include anxiety, inability to concentrate, depression, edginess, and the reexperience of stressful events. These symptoms illustrate which of the following disorders?

post-traumatic stress disorder

40. Which theoretical framework would argue most strongly that a healthy child will choose what is good for his or her growth?

Social learning theory

41. Provide contemporary definitions of abnormality

an abnormal condition, state, or quality; irregularity; deviation

42. Neurosurgeons cut the corpus callosum in the brain disrupting communication between the right and left hemispheres to prevent_________________________.

Prevent the spread of epileptic seizures

43. A psychologist is attempting to get Wade, an 8-year-old autistic boy, to make eye contact when she speaks to him. She gives Wade a piece of candy every time he looks at her face. This treatment illustrates which therapeutic approaches?

Behavioral

44. Which form of therapy is most likely to involve a confrontational atmosphere between therapist and client?

Rational- Emotive Therapy

45. A person who has a brain injury is having problems seeing and hearing. these symptoms indicate that damage has occurred in the ______?

Occipital and temporal lobes

46. Individuals who accept personal responsibility for their life experiences may be characterized as having _____?

internal locus of control

47. The overall purpose psychoanalytic therapy is to

help the client gain new insight to himself

48. which two elements are most involved in the action potential of a neuron?

Sodium and potassium

49. Which component of the limbic system has an essential role in the formation of new memories?

Hippocampus

50. A central nervous system depressant that produces a false feeling of well-being and efficiency and results in slower reaction time to simulation is

alcohol

51. A student who strongly believes that genetic influence is a major contributor to human personality is analyzing data gathered about identical twins who had been separated at birth and reunited in adulthood. The student observes may striking similarities in personality and habits within the twin pairs but does not notice differences within the twin pairs that might argue against the students belief. this illustrates?

Conformation bias

52. John Garcia showed that when rats ingested a novel substance before becoming nauseated from radiation or drugs, they acquired a

Conditioned taste aversion for the substance

53. In Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs, living up to one's potential and striving for personal fulfillment are referred to as

Self- actualization needs

54. The technique of assessing personality by asking a person to make up a story based on a picture presented by the researcher is an example of which type of test?

Projective tests

55. John B. watson was a pioneer in which perspective of psychology?

Behaviorism

56. What is considered the fundamental building block of the nervous system?

Neuron

57. Solomon Asch's findings on conformity might best be used to explain why

adolescents follow fads in dress in hairstyle

58. The humanistic perspective in psychology suggests what about the human experience?

all humans are by nature good

59. The human brain differs from the brains of most other animals by the relative amount of brain mass devoted to what region of the brain?

the cerebral cortex

60. An individual who see and feels imaginary spiders crawling on his arms and legs is experiencing

hallucination

61. According to the psychoanalytic view, depression is caused by

unresolved experiences of loss from childhood

62. Which structure of the brain has been linked with the regulation of hunger and thirst?

hypothalamos

63. Sigmund Freud once compared psychological development to the migration of a population: "As time passes most of the group moves on, but some of the members remain at an earlier location. " What concept was Freud describing?

Fixation

64. What concept explains the behavior of normally law-abiding people who act destructively when they are pat of a crowd?

deindividuation

65. The psychologists who first developed encounter groups and sensitivity-training groups based their work on what approach to therapy?

Humanistic

66. The minimum intensity at which a stimulus can be detected at least 50 percent of the time is known as the

absolute threshold

67. A club president discovers that contributions of club members drop when the total contribution of all members is published rather then contributions of individuals. This drop can be explained by the phenomenon of

social loafing

68. A researcher studies the effects of brain lesions in rats. This research study reflects which perspective?

biological

69. A teacher taught her students to take turns by giving them stars to trade for snacks at the end of the day. This technique is called

token economy

70. Aaron Beck suggested that negative beliefs cause depression. To help change these negative beliefs, Beck used which type of therapy?

cognitive

71. Two friends attribute their high math scores to their high level of effort and ability in math and low Spanish scores to their teacher's subjective grading and favoritism. In this situation there students are exhibiting

Self-serving bias

72. Describe antisocial personality disorder

An inability to feel empathy for others and a lack of remorse for actions that harm others.

73. Which assessment tools are MOST likely to be used by a psychoanalytically oriented psychologist?

Sentence completion, Draw a person test, thematic apperception test, Rorshach test

74-75. Please know the following perspectives.
A. Humanistic
B. Trait
C. Psychoanalytic
D. Behavioral
E. Cognitive

A. people are in control of their own destiny, one tries to satisfy basic needs then move to harder needs, self concept is important
B. Stress genetic, medical, and neurological component of the person. believe that these biological factors influence behaviors
C. focus on person's behavior is determined by primal drives and experiences of childhood
D. Stress the connection between stimulus/response and behavior/reward. views the environment as instrumental in behavior
E. feature the mental process of the individual. person's difficulties often stem from false perception of reality. people develop ideas and base their judgements upon perception

76. Which perspective views the human condition as a mixture of unconscious desires and conflicts?

psychoanalytic

77. Which perspective was used by Raymond Cattell as a basis for his personality measure known as the 16 PF test?

trait

78. Know the theorists we discussed in the prologue, Chapter 1, and Chapter 15.

know

79. The text defines social psychology as the scientific study of how people ______ one another

think about, influence and relate to one another

80. Attribution theory was designed to account for

explaining someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition

81. Fritz Heider concluded that people tend to attribute others' behavior either to

internal dispositions or to their external situations

82. Ksana insists that her boyfriend's cat accident resulted from his carelessness. Her explanation for the accident provides an example of

dispositional attribution

83. A dispositional attribution is to ______
as a situational attribution is to ____

personality traits assigned roles

84. The fundamental attribution error is most likely to lead observers to conclude that unemployed people ____.

irresponsible and unmotivated

85. Carol is restless during class because her professor's distressed facial expressions lead her to believe that he dislikes teaching. The professor, on the other hand, is distressed because he sees Carol's restlessness as an indication that she lacks any motivation to learn. At this point, both student and professor should be informed of the dangers of

fundamental attribution error

86. Attitudes are _____that guide behavior.

Feelings

87. Vanna is tempted to shoplift a gold necklace even though she has negative feelings about shoplifting. Vanna is least likely to steal the merchandise if

if aware of negative feelings of shoplifting

88. After she was promoted to high-level executive position in the large company for which she worked, Jorana developed more pro-business political attitudes. This best illustrates the impact of _____ on attitudes.

role playing

89. In order to "brainwash" captured American soldiers during Korean War, Chinese communists made effective use of ________. Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group's judgement of the lengths of lines _________

foot in the door.
when group judgement was incorrect.

90. Normative social influence results from people's desire to ____

gain social approval

91. Professor Maslova attends faculty meetings simply to gain the approval of the college dean. Professor Maslova's behavior exemplifies the importance of

normative social influence

92. In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" exhibited a somewhat lower level of compliance with experimenter's orders when

he heard or saw the victims objections, not correlated with reputable studies

93. In 1942, reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 Jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when

it felt like a legit authority figure

94. Nora, Ko, Ian, and May each think the Ms. Akey may be slightly better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. After discussing why each of them believes this to be so, they all conclude that Ms Akey is definitely a much better teacher than Schwenke. This episode provides an example of
A

Group polarization

95.The NASA executive who made the final decision to launch the space shuttle Challenger was shielded from information and dissenting views that might have led to a delay of the tragic launch. This best illustrates the danger of____.

Groupthink

96.Prejudice is best defined as

unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members involves stereotypical beliefs, negative feelings and predisposition to discriminating action

Politicians who suggest that african americans are at fault for the economically disadvantaged position of their ethnic group best illustrate

Scapegoat theory aka victim blaming.

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