English II Pre-AP Midterm Review

328 terms by nclose 

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straight off of the review for Ms. Watson, including all greek vocab and other terms on the review

symbolism

A device in literature where an object represents an idea.

irony

a contrast between expectation and reality

metaphor

comparison not using like or as

hyperbole

a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor

synecdoche

using a part of something to represent the whole thing

apostrophe

a figure of speech in which one directly addresses an absent or imaginary person, or some abstraction

imagery

Description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)

allusion

a reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art

tone

The attitude of the author toward the audience and characters

repetition

repeated use of sounds, words, or ideas for effect and emphasis

simile

a comparison using "like" or "as"

personification

A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes

foreshadowing

the use of hints and clues to suggest what will happen later in a plot

innuendo

an indirect or subtle reference, especially one made maliciously or indicating criticism or disapproval; insinuation

epithet

a term used to point out a characteristic of a person (used quite a bit by Homer)

invocation to the muse

beginning of an epic; calling the gods

epic

An extended narrative poem in elevated or dignified language, celebrating the feats of a legendary or traditional hero.

hubris

Excessive pride or arrogance which causes the hero's transgression against the gods; usually the tragic flaw

in medias res

in the middle of things

catharsis

purgation of emotions of pity and fear, which leaves the viewer both relaxed and elated

tragic hero

a character, usually of high birth, neither totally good nor totally evil, whose downfall is brought about by some weakness in error or judgement

nemesis

fate that cannot be escaped

arete

pursuit of excellence and virtue; literally "that which is good"

hammartia

tragic flaw of the hero that often brings about their demise

anagnorisis

Recognition or discovery on the part of the hero; change from ignorance to knowledge

peripeteia

A sudden change of events or reversal of circumstances, turning point

choragos

leader of the chorus

chorus

the actors who sang the chorus and commented on the action of the play

paean

song or hymn of praise, joy, or triumph

dithyramb

a hymn performed by men wearing masks, usually in honor of Dionysus (the god of wine and fertility)

tragedy

an imitation of a serious action, which will arouse pity or fear of the viewer

deus ex machina

In literature, the use of an artificial device or gimmick to solve a problem. ("God the machine")

theatron

the first theaters, built on hillsides with a few wooden benches for the important spectators

orchestra

area paved with stone with the actors

thymele

an altar for Dionysus in the center of the orchestra

skene

rectangular building made of wood that provided changing rooms for the actors and prop storage

proskenion

permanent stone building with a facade that replaced the skene

parados

the entrance used by the Chorus

rhetorical appeals

pathos, ethos, logos

ethos

The appeal of a text to the credibility and character of the speaker, writer, or narrator

logos

an appeal based on logic or reason

concession

an admission; a compromise; a yielding

counterargument

argument against an argument already made

syllogism

a three-part deductive argument in which a conclusion is based on a major premise and a minor premise ("All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.")

anaphora

the repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of consecutive lines or sentences

alliteration

repetition of initial consonant sounds

refutation

an attack on an opposing view in order to weaken it, invalidate it, or make it less credible

double entendre

A word or phrase open to two interpretations, one of which is usually risqué or indecent.

pun

a play on words, often achieved through the use of words with similar sounds but different meanings

malapropism

the unintentional misuse of a word by confusion with one that sounds similar

motif

A recurring theme, subject or idea

draconian

Exceedingly harsh; very severe

intemperance

excessive indulgence of appetite or passion, esp. in regard to alcohol; lack of constraint

volatility

Inconstant; fickle

phobia

fear, dislike, aversion

acrophobia

fear of being at a great height

agoraphobia

fear of open spaces

Anglophobia

fear or dislike of England or the English

claustrophobia

fear of enclosed or narrow spaces

Germanophobia

dislike of Germany or the Germans

hydrophobia

rabies - fear of water

monophobia

fear of being alone

photophobia

morbid (abnormal) aversion to light

xenophobia

aversion to foreigners

phobe

one who fears or dislikes

phil(o)

loving, fond of

philanthropist

lover of humanity, person active in promoting human welfare

philanthropy

love of humanity, especially as shown in donations to charitable and socially useful causes

philately

collection and study of stamps

philharmonic

pertaining to a musical organization, such as a symphony orchestra (originally "loving music")

philhellenism

support of Greece or the Greeks

philogyny

love of women

philology

study (love) of language and literature

philosopher

lover of, or searcher for, wisdom or knowledge, person who regulates his or her life by the light of reason

phile

one who loves or supports

Anglophile

supporter of England or the English

bibliophile

lover of books

Francophile

supporter of France or the French

misandry

hatred of males

misanthrope

hater of humanity

misanthropy

hatred of humanity

misogamy

hatred of marriage

misogyny

hatred of women

misology

hatred of argument or discussion

misoneism

hatred of anything new

dys

bad, ill, difficult

dysentery

inflammation of the large intestine

dysfunction

abnormal functioning, as of an organ of the body

dyslexia

impairment of the ability to read

dyspepsia

difficult digestion, indigestion

eupepsia

good digestion

dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing

dysphasia

speech difficulty resulting from brain injury

dystrophy

faulty nutrition

eu

good, well, advantageous

eugenics

science dealing with improving the hereditary qualities of the human race

eulogize

write or speak in praise of someone

euphemism

substitution of a "good" expression for an unpleasant one

euphonious

pleasing in sound

cacophonous

harsh-sounding

euphoria

sense of well-being

euthanasia

illegal practice of painlessly putting to death a person suffering from an incurable, painfully distressing disease - literally "advantageous death"

euthenics

science dealing with improving the living conditions

macro

large, long

micro

small

macrocosm

great world, universe

microcosm

little world

macron

horizontal mark indicating that the vowel over which it is placed is long

macroscopic

large enough to be visible to the naked eye

microscopic

invisible to the naked eye

microbe

very minute organism, a microorganism

microbicide

agent that destroys microbes

microdont

having small teeth

microfilm

film of very small size

micrometer

instrument for measuring very short distances

microsecond

unit of time equal to one millionth of a second

microwave

very short electromagnetic wave

a/an

not, without

amoral

without sense of moral responsibility

amorphous

without (having no) definite form or shape

anemia

lack of a normal number of red blood cells

anesthesia

loss of feeling or sensation resulting from ether, chloroform, novocaine, etc.

anhydrous

destitute of (without) water

anomaly

deviation from the common rule

anonymous

nameless, of unknown or unnamed origin

anoxia

deprivation of (state of being without) oxygen

aseptic

free from disease-causing microorganisms

atheism

godlessness, denial of the existence of a supreme being

atrophy

lack of growth from disuse or want of nourishment

hypertrophy

enlargement of a body part, as from excessive use

atypical

unlike the typical

mono/mon

one, single, alone

monarchy

rule by a single person

polyarchy

rule by many

monochromatic

of one color

polychromatic

showing a variety of colors

monogamy

marriage with one mate at a time

polygamy

marriage to several mates at the same time

monomorphic

having a single form

polymorphic

having various forms

monosyllabic

having one syllable

polysyllabic

having more than three syllables

monotheism

belief that there is one God

polytheism

belief that there is a plurality of gods

monocle

eyeglass for one eye

monogram

two or more letters interwoven to represent a name

monograph

written account of a single thing or class of things

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