Who was Napoleon?
a french military dictator
How did Napoleon gain power?
in a coup d'etat (quick seizure of power)
What was Napoleon's major goal
to unify Europe under French domination
List a couple of Napoleon's victories:
He conquered Spain, Italy, and the German states
What big mistake did Napoleon make?
He invaded Russia and got caught in the winter and was defeated
What affect did Napoleon's conquests have on Europe?
French domination spread domination
What is nationalism?
pride in your culture (desire to have your own country)
Where was nationalism the most intense?
The German States
Who defeated Napoloeon? When and where?
Great Britain, Austria, and Russia, and Prussia
1815--Battle of Waterloo
What legacy did Napoleon have on Germany?
He left intense nationalism in the German States and Germans began to desire unification
What was the Napoleon Code?
a series of laws that Napoleon imposed on conquered areas
What right did the Napoleonic Code give?
Equality--it eliminated many inequalities between classes.
What was the Congress of Vienna?
The peace conference held after Napoleon's defeat
Where was the congress of vienna held?
Who dominated the Congress of Vienna?
Prince Metternich of Austria
What was Metternich's goal?
to return Europe back to the way it was before the French Revolution
What mnemonic helps us to remember the ideas of Metternich?
B.A.C.K. (Metternich wanted to take Europe B.A.C.K. to 1789)
Give the ideas in each letter of B.A.C.K.:
B. Balance of power (no one too powerful)
A. Arrival of new philosophies (liberal and conservative)
C. Creation of new map (France weaker)
K. Kings restored to power
What are the new political philosophies at the Congress of Vienna?
Liberal (freedom and democracy)
Conservative (monarchy and absolutism)
Which government was associated with Liberalism:
Great Britain (think: Parliament)
Explain the idea behind "balance of power?"
Powerful countries must balance each other out--use of alliance achieves this
Why did Metternich restore kings to power?
He was a conservative and believed that kings had the rightful claim to power (he did not trust people to rule themselves)
Why did Metternich consolidate (unify) many of the German states?
He thought if the Germans were stronger then they would "balance" out the power of the French.
What was Napoleon's most lasting effect?
Nationalism in places that he conquered
What did nationalism lead to?
1. Desire for unification 2. independence from foreign control
Where did independence come first (due to nationalism)?
European colonies in America
. Which country controlled Haiti as a colony?
Who led Haiti to independence?
Toussaint L'Ouverture (a former slave)
Who led Latin American colonies to independence?
Simon Bolivar "The Liberator"
What country had controlled these Latin American countries?
Who did Brazil get independence from?
Who opposed the Congress of Vienna?
What did liberals want?
political rights and democracy
What happened in 1848?
The Revolutions of 1848--series of failed revolts by Liberals in Europe
What was an effect of the revolutions of 1848?
nationalism in the German and Italian states grew more intense
What reforms did Great Britain pass in 1832 and 1833?
1832: voting rights expanded
1833: slavery outlawed
Where was nationalism most intense?
German and Italian states
Who was Otto von Bismark?
Prime Minister of Prussia (strongest German state)
What did Bismark believe?
German states to be united into Germany
How did Bismark feel this would happen?
Through war (which would raise nationalistic feelings and desire for unification)
Do anything to gain power and win
Where else in Europe was nationalism strong?
the Italian states
What did Count Cavour do?
he united the northern Italian states
What did Guiseppe Garibaldi do?
he united the southern Italian states
How was Italy formed as a united country?
the northern and southern states joined to be italy
What are the Papal States?
The Italian states around Rome controlled by the Pope
Why were the papal states so important?
They were the only Italian states that did not join Italy in 1866
What deal was stuck on the Papal States?
The Papal states join Italy--the Pope gets Vatican City in Rome
What affect did Germany and Italy unification have on Europe?
It ruined the delicate balance of power--Germany is now the strongest country in Europe