a conflict initiated due to hostilities between former city-state allies that resulted in the eventual defeat of Athens by Sparta and its allies
statesman who dominated Athenian politics from 461 B.C.E. until his death; he led Athens to its greatest heights of success
Athenian philosopher brought to trial for his teachings that were believed to undermine the Athenian democracy
a conflict initiated by an uprising of the Ionian Greek colonists that lasted on and off for two centuries and was of profound importance in the eastern Mediterranean
consisted of an urban center and the rural hinterlands that it controlled; usually translated as "city-state"
a person who seized and held power in violation of the normal political institutions and traditions of the community; most prevalent in Greek city-states during the mid-seventh and sixth-centuries B.C.E.
Persian king who seized power following the death of Cambyses; eventually extended Persian control to the Indus River in the east, and into Europe in the west
monotheistic religion, hymns or Gathas written in archaic Iranian dialect; practiced by Darius I and his successors
Alexander the Great
son of King Philip of Macedon; conquered the Persian Empire, Egypt, and the lands east as far as the Indus River
dynasty that ruled Egypt following the death of Alexander and actively encouraged Greek immigration to Egypt