Chapter 5: Greece and Iran (1000 B.C.E. - 30 B.C.E.)

20 terms by tms135696 

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hoplites

heavily armored infantrymen who fought in close formation

Pelopponesian Wars

a conflict initiated due to hostilities between former city-state allies that resulted in the eventual defeat of Athens by Sparta and its allies

Persepolis

statesman who dominated Athenian politics from 461 B.C.E. until his death; he led Athens to its greatest heights of success

trireme

an Athenian war ship

Hellenistic Age

the epoch ushered in by the conquests of Alexander; influenced Greek culture

Socrates

Athenian philosopher brought to trial for his teachings that were believed to undermine the Athenian democracy

Persian Wars

a conflict initiated by an uprising of the Ionian Greek colonists that lasted on and off for two centuries and was of profound importance in the eastern Mediterranean

polis

consisted of an urban center and the rural hinterlands that it controlled; usually translated as "city-state"

sacrifice

central ritual of the Greek religion

tyrant

a person who seized and held power in violation of the normal political institutions and traditions of the community; most prevalent in Greek city-states during the mid-seventh and sixth-centuries B.C.E.

Cyrus

Persian leader; united Persian tribes and overthrew the Median monarchy

satrap

governors put in place by Darius to supervise the twenty provinces of the Persian Empire

Darius I

Persian king who seized power following the death of Cambyses; eventually extended Persian control to the Indus River in the east, and into Europe in the west

Persepolis

ceremonial capital of the Persian Empire

Zoroastrianism

monotheistic religion, hymns or Gathas written in archaic Iranian dialect; practiced by Darius I and his successors

democracy

the excersise of political power by all the free, adult males; this originated in Athens

Alexander the Great

son of King Philip of Macedon; conquered the Persian Empire, Egypt, and the lands east as far as the Indus River

Ptolemies

dynasty that ruled Egypt following the death of Alexander and actively encouraged Greek immigration to Egypt

Alexandria

the greatest city of all during an age of cities; famous for its library and lighthouse

Herodotus

chronicler of the exploits of the Greeks and other events of his time; considered the "father of history"

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