Endocrinology Final

134 terms by ScottFilippone

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VLDL

blood TH that originated in the liver

increased

VLDL synthesis is ____ when caloric intake is high

LDL

transports cholesterol to many tissues

HDL

transports cholesterol back to liver for disposal or recycling

B-48

Chylomicrons possess what apoprotein?

dietary TG

Pancreatic lipase converts what into fatty acis and glycerol

albumin

Fatty acids are bound to ____

lipoproteins

Cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids are transported by _____

phospholipid

Lecithin is a ______ in the blood

cholesterol

Roles include: component of cell membranes, precursor of bile acids, precursor of steroids

Acetyl-CoA

Precursor to cholesterol metabolism

HMG-CoA reductase

Regulates cholesterol metabolism

statins

HMG-CoA reductase is inhibited by _____

LPL

Hydrolyzes TG into FFAs and glycerol, anchored to endothelium of blood capillaries

HL

On sinusoidal surface of liver cells, hydrolyzes TG into FFAs and glycerol; does not react readily with chylomicrons, handles TG hydrolysis of chylomicron remnants and HDL metabolism

LCAT

Formation of cholesterol esters in lipoproteins

ACAT

Formation of cholesterol esters in cells

Familial hypercholesterolemia

Deficiency of LDL receptors; increases blood cholestrol

Familial combined hypercholesterolemia

Increased LDL and VLDL due to overproduction of VDL -> Increased LDL

Increase

Hypothyroidism causes an ____ in LDL

familial hypertriglyceridemia

Caused by genetic deficiency of LPL; increases VLDL and chylomicrons

decrease

Diabetes causes a ____ in LPL

increase

Insulin causes an _____ in VLDL

main cholesterol carrier in the brain

ApoE is the _____

increase

Catabolic reactions cause an ____ in ketone bodies

absorptive

Anabolic reactions take place during the ____ state

post-absorptive

Catabolic reactions take place during the ___ state

increase

Insulin causes an ____ in LPL

decrease

The actions of insulin result in a ___ in blood levels of glucose, amino acids, and fats

increase

Glucagon leads to an ___ in ketone bodies

glucose transporter

In adipose tissue and muscle, insulin stimulates insertion of a ____ into the cell membrane

increase

Insulin causes an ____ in the metabolism of glucose in liver cells

CLASS 1

Group of glucose transporters

True

Type II diabetes has a strong genetic link T/F

False

Type I diabetes has a strong genetic link T/F

Autoimmune

Type I diabetes is an ____ disease

ketoic coma

Failure of a patient with type I diabetes to take insulin could send them into a _____

hypoglycemic coma

A patient that takes too much insulin could send them into a ____

osmotic diuresis

Hyperglycemia can lead to ____, leading to dehydration and electrolyte loss

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Caused from an insulin deficiency, sending catabolic reactions out of control

IDDM1

Most well studied Type I diabetes risk factor

HLA genes

Contained in IDDM1, encodes immune response proteins

diabetes mellitus

Deficiency of insulin/insulin resistance

tyrosine kinases

Insulin and GH act on receptors that are ____

g proteins

Epinephrine and glucagon act on receptors linked to ____

cAMP

g proteins stimulate ___, a second messenger

sertoli

FSH stimulates ___ cells to produce inhibin

FSH

promotes spermatogenesis in seminiferous tubules of testes

FSH

Inhibin decreases ___

leydig

LH stimulates ___ cells of testes

testosterone

Leydig cells cause ____ to be produced

Estrogen

if testosterone is treated with aromatase from the fat and brain it turns into ___

DHT

if testosterone is treated with 5-a-reductase in the testes it turns into ___

androgen binding protein

Sertoli cells in the testes produce ____, which helps to concentrate testosterone to high levels in the testes

secondary sex glands

Seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands are examples of ____

LH

___ is needed to stimulate synthesis and release of testosterone

testosterone

___ maintains spermatogenesis

FSH

____ initiates spermatogenesis

FSH

___ causes the development of the ovarian follicle

LH

Peak levels of estrogen lead to peak levels of ___

LH

___ maintains the corpus luteum

oxytocin

Lactation causes a stimulation of what hormone?

menopause

ovaries fail to produce E and P

amenorrhea

failure to cycle

LH

High levels of prolactin inhibit ___ release, preventing ovulation

oviparous

lays an egg

ovoviparous

keeps an egg inside the oviduct

viviparous

gives birth to live young

estrus

periods of sexual receptivity

spontaneous ovulators

ovulate in response to hormonal changes at the end of the follicular phase of the estrous or menstrual cycle

induced ovulators

mating is required to stimulate release of LH, which then stimulates ovulation

testosterone

stimulates wolffian duct to develop to internal male organs

A-MH

causes mullerian duct to degenerate, prevents internal female structures

DHT

stimulates development of external male genetalia

Pseudohermaphrodites

have the genes and sex organs of one sex but the appearance of the opposite sex

Klinefelter's syndrome

XXY gene, seminiferous tubules do not develop, resulting in infertility; elevated E/T ratio

low

In klinefelters syndrom, testosterone production is ___

true hermaphordites

both ovarian and testicular tissue are present. Individuals may appear male or female depending on whether testosterone was produced in quantities sufficient to stimulate development of male genitalia

leydig cell aplasia

low receptors for LH on leydig cells

gynecomastia

enlargement of breast tissue; male disorder

hypogonadism

failure of leydig or germinal cells; male disorder

progesterone

___ is needed to slow the journey of the embryo in the uterus

estrogen

___ is needed for embryo implantation

placenta

membranes from the uterus+embryonic membranes

hCG

___ mimics LH

chorionic somatomammotropin

formed by developing placenta, causes growth of breast/uterus

estrogens

___ stimulate the excitability of uterine muscle and progesterone inhibits uterine contractions

progesterone

levels decline prior to parturition, which permits an increase in uterine receptors

prostaglandins

secreted by some species during labor, promote uterine contractions

oxytocin

directly stimulates uterine contractions, does not increase until after labor has begun

relaxin

increases flexibility and enlargement of the birth canal by softening the pubic symphysis

corpus luteum

relaxin is produced by the _____

mid-gestation

Fetal LH and FSH peak at ___ and are low at birth

placenta

acts as an interface between mother and child

immune suppression

placental production of estrogen, progesterone, hCG, and hPL may contribute to maternal ____

antibodies

placenta blocks and masks

IgG

only immunoglobulin that can cross the placenta

passive immunity

IgG confers ___ onto the fetus

12

the fetus has IgG, IgM, IgD, and IgE after __ weeks of gestation

foramen ovale

opening between left and right atrium in fetal heart

fuctus arteriosus

Right ventricular blood is shunter by ___ to the descending aorta

Hgb F

fetal hemoglobin

higher

Hgb F has __ oxygen affinity and saturation than Hgb A

first

the fetal thyroid gland has developed by the end of the ___ trimester

second

fetal kidney is functional after the ___

dilute hypotonic

fetal kidney produces ____ urine

fetal growth

fundal height or ultrasound are used to determine ___

fetal well being

fetal activity and fetal monitoring are used to determine ___

nonstress test

measures fetal heart rate with an external transducer for 20 mins

increased blood pressure and proteinuria

pre-eclampsia is characterized by _____

vasopressin and angiotensin

During pre-eclampsia, the mother has abnormally increased sensitivity to _____

hypertensive encephalopathy

eclampsia is a form of ___ and is characterized by seizures

True

Cancer is the second leading cause of death behind heart disease T/F

prostate

Most common male cancer

breast

most common female cancer

benign

___ neoplasm have unregulated growth, but they do not invade tissue

carcinomas

cancers of epithelial cells

sarcomas

cancers of mesenchymal origin

lymphomas

cancers of hematopoietic cells

genetic

cancer is a ___ disease

inhibit growth promoting pathways

potential anti-cancer agents ____

epithelial

Breast cancer is a malignant proliferation of ___ cells lining the ducts or lobules of the breast

germ line

Not more than 10% of human breast cancer can be linked directly to ____ mutations

erbB2

member of the epidermal growth factor receptor superfamily that is overexpressed in most breast cancers

hormone

Breast cancer is a ____-dependent disease

FNA

Study of dominant mass requires ___

size of tumor

"T" criteria used for staging

lymph node involvement

"N" criteria used for staging

metastasis

"M" criteria used for staging

low

Tumors with significant amounts of fibrous tissue provide __ cellularity on needle aspirations

needle core biopsy

Offers greater sampling accuracy of tumors than FNA

multistep

Development of prostrate cancer is a ___ process

GSTP1

One early change during the development of prostrate cancer is the hypermethylation of the ___ gene promoter

prostrate specific-antigen

protease causes liquefaction of seminal coagulum

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