AP Psych Review - Famous Psychologists - Mrs. Welle

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Famous psychologists (and their most known accomplishments) that you should know for the AP Psychology Exam.

Mary Ainsworth

Studied attachment in infants using the "strange situation" model. Label infants "secure", "insecure" (etc.) in attachment

Solomon Asch

Conducted famous conformity experiment that required subjects to match lines.

Albert Bandura

Famous for the Bobo Doll experiments on observational learning & influence in the Socio-Cognitive Perspective

Alfred Binet

Created first intelligence test for Parisian school children

Thomas Bouchard

Studied identical twins separated at birth

Noam Chomsky

Created concept of "universal grammar"

Hermann Ebbinghaus

Memorized nonsense syllables in early study on human memory

Erik Erikson

Known for his 8-stage theory of Psychosocial Development

Sigmund Freud

Developed psychoanalysis; considered to be "father of modern psychiatry"

John Garcia

studied taste aversion in rats; led to knowledge that sickness and taste preferences can be conditioned

Carol Gilligan

Presented feminist critique of Kolhberg's moral development theory; believed women's moral sense guided by relationships

Harry Harlow

Studied attachment in monkeys with artificial mothers

William James

created Functionalist school of thought; early American psychology teacher/philosopher

Jerome Kagan

Conducted longitudinal studies on temperament (infancy to adolescence)

Ancel Keys

Conducted semi-starvation experiments to measure psych effects of hunger

Lawrence Kohlberg

Famous for his theory of moral development in children; made use of moral dilemmas in assessment

Elizabeth Loftus

Her research on memory construction and the misinformation effect created doubts about the accuracy of eye-witness testimony

Abraham Maslow

Humanistic psychologist known for his "Hierarchy of Needs" and the concept of "self-actualization"

Stanley Milgram

Conducted "shocking" (Ha!) experiments on obedience

Ivan Pavlov

Described process of classical conditioning after famous experiments with dogs

Jean Piaget

Known for his theory of cognitive development in children

Carl Rogers

Developed "client-centered" therapy

Stanley Schachter

Developed "Two-Factor" theory of emotion; experiments on spillover effect

B.F. Skinner

Described process of operant conditioning

Edward Thorndike

Famous for "law of effect" and research on cats in "puzzle boxes"

John Watson

Early behaviorist; famous for the "Little Albert" experiments on fear conditioning

Benjamin Lee Whorf

Famous for describing concept of "liguistic determinism"

William Wundt

Conducted first psychology experiments in first psych laboratory

Philip Zimbardo

Conducted Stanford Prison experiment

Hans Selye

(Accidently) described General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

Karen Horney

Neo-Freudian; offered feminist critique of Freud's theory

Martin Seligman

Conducted experiments with dogs that led to the concept of "learned helplessness"

Fritz Perls

Creator of Gestalt Therapy

Alfred Adler

Neo-Freudian; introduced concept of "inferiority complex" and stressed the importance of birth order

Albert Ellis

Developed "rational emotive behavior therapy" (REBT)

Aaron Beck

Developed cognitive-behavior therapy

Gordon Allport

Founder of Trait Theory

Phineas Gage

his survival of a horrible industrial accident taught us about the role of the frontal lobes (okay, he's not really a psychologist...)

Walter Mischel

offered famous critique of trait theory and its claims

David McClelland

studied achievement motivation; found those with high levels are driven to master challenging tasks

Mary Whiton Calkins

first female president of the APA (1905); a student of William James; denied the PhD she earned from Harvard because of her sex (later, posthumously, it was granted to her)

Charles Darwin

his idea, that the genetic composition of a species can be altered through natural selection, has had a lasting impact on psychology through the evolutionary perspective

Dorothea Dix

American activist who successfully pressured lawmakers to construct & fund asylums for the mentally ill

G. Stanley Hall

first american to work for Wundt; • Founded the American Psychological Association (now largest organization of psychologists in the USA) and became first president

Margaret Floy Washburn

First female to be awarded a PhD in psychology; 2nd president of the APA (1921)

Paul Broca

the part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscles involved in speech was named for him, because he first identified it

Carl Wernicke

an area of the brain (in the left temporal lobe) involved in language comprehension and expression was named for him because he discovered it

Michael Gazzaniga

Conducted the "HE-ART" experiments with split brain patients

Roger Sperry

like Gazzaniga, studied split brain patients; showed that left/right hemispheres have different functions

Gustav Fechner

early German psychologist credited with founding psychophysics

David Hubel & Torsten Weisel

two Nobel prize winning neuroscientists who demonstrated the importance of "feature detector" neurons in visual perception

Ernst Weber

best known for "Weber's Law", the notion that the JND magnitude is proportional to the stimulus magnitude

Ernest Hilgard

famous for his hypnosis research & the theory that a "hidden observer" theory

Robert Rescorla

researched classical conditioning; found subjects learn the predictability of an event through trials (cognitive element)

Edward Tolman

researched rats' use of "cognitive maps"

Wolfgang Kohler

considered to be the founder of Gestalt Psychology

George A. Miller

made famous the phrase: "the magical number 7, plus or minus 2" when describing human memory

Alfred Kinsey

his research described human sexual behavior and was controversial (for its methodology & findings)

Diana Baumrind

her theory of parenting styles had three main types (permissive, authoratative, & authoritarian)

Lev Vygotsky

founder of "Social Development Theory" (note: not "social learning theory" OR "psychosocial" development...); emphasizes importace of More Knowledge Others (MKO) and the Zone of Proximal Development

Konrad Lorenz

won Nobel prize for research on imprinting

Carl Jung

neo-Freudian who created concept of "collective unconscious" and wrote books on dream interpretation

Paul Costa & Robert McCrae

creators of the "Big Five" model of personality traits

Francis Galton

interested in link between heredity and intelligence; founder of the eugenics movement

Howard Gardner

best known for his theory of "multiple intelligences"

Charles Spearman

creator of "g-factor", or general intelligence, concept

Robert Sternberg

creator of "successful intelligence" theory (3 types)

Lewis Terman

advocate of intelligence testing in US; developed Standford-Binet test and oversaw army's use of intelligence testing during WWI

David Weschler

developer of WAIS and WISC intelligence tests

Mary Cover Jones

"mother of behavior therapy"; used classical conditioning to help "Peter" overcome fear of rabbits

Joseph Wolpe

described use of systematic desensitization to treat phobias

Leon Festinger

described concept of cognitive dissonance

Paul Ekman

Interested in the universality of facial expressions: facial expressions carry same meaning regardless of culture, context, or language. Use of microexpressions to detect lying.

William Masters & Virginia Johnson

used direct observation and experimentation to study sexual response cycle (4 stages)

Daniel Kahneman & Amos Tversky

investigated the use of heuristics in decision-making; studied the availability, anchoring, and representativeness heuristics

Raymond Cattell

intelligence: fluid & crystal intelligence; personality testing: 16 Personality Factors (16PF personality test)

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