Final Exam Government Helligso

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Which group is most likely to vote for Republican candidates?

Whites

Voter turnout in the United States is

significantly less than most other Western democracies.

Which group is the least likely to vote?

young adults

American women got the right to vote in

1920

African American voting rates increased substantially

After the 1965 Voting Rights Acts were passed

The phenomenon called the "gender gap" refers to the fact that

Women are more likely to vote for Democrats than men

After Hurricane Katrina, President Bush's approval rating among blacks

only 2 %

Registration requirements were instituted in the early twentieth century

to make voting more difficult, to reduce multiple voting and other corruption, as well as to reduce lower-class voting.

What was the effect of the Motor Voter Registration Act in the first presidential election after it was passed

Voter registration rose, but voter turnout did not.

In the United States, voter participation by the unemployed is

very low.

Which country has higher voter turnout than the United States?

All of the above

Voting qualifications are determined by the

states, subject to certain federal rules and limits.

Registering to vote in the United States is

harder than in Europe

The most recent expansion of the suffrage in the United States took place in 1971, when the

voting age was reduced from twenty-one to eighteen.

The textbook authors believe that the Supreme Court's 2010 ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission will

increase the role of money in elections

Which religious group has become a significant part of the Republican party base starting in the 1980s?

White evangelical Protestants

Which of the following differentiates an interest group from a political party?

An interest group seeks to influence government on a narrow range of issues, whereas a party attempts to win elections.

Which famous American, in his farewell address, encouraged his fellow citizens to avoid partisan politics?

George Washington

Compared with political parties in Europe, parties in the United States have always seemed

weak.

A proportional-representation electoral system is

a multiple-member district system that gives each political party representation in proportion to its percentage of the total vote.

Historically, the United States has always been a ____________-party system

two

The original party system in the United States pitted the Federalists, supported by ______ against the Jeffersonian Republicans, supported by _______.

merchants; agrarian interests

The Republican Party was formed

as a coalition of antislavery forces.

Who was the founder of the Democratic Party?

Andrew Jackson

From the Civil War to the 1960s, the _________was a Democratic stronghold.

South

After thirty-six years of dominating U.S. political life, the Republican Party lost power after _________ began.

The Great Depression

Which person came up with the "southern strategy" to get white southerners to start voting Republican?

Richard Nixon

One important cause of the United States' two-party system is

Single member Electoral Districts

Which of the following is a task of the Democratic and Republican National Committees?

Raising Campaign Funds

Since the 1930s and the New Deal, African Americans have been overwhelmingly ____________ in their party identification; women are somewhat more likely to support ____________ candidates; and Jews are among the ____________ Party's most loyal constituent groups.

Democratic, Democratic, Democratic

Upper-class Americans are considerably more likely to affiliate with the ____________ Party; conservatives are more likely to identify with the ____________ Party; and citizens living in the northeast region are more likely to identify with the ____________ Party.

Republican, Republican, Democratic

Which of the following is not usually considered a function of political parties?

lobbying

Since the creation of our current "two-party" system, when was the last time a "third-party" candidate won the presidency of the United States?

third parties has never won the presidency since the inception of our current system.

Which party has controlled the White House for most of the last thirty years?

REPUBLICAN

What was George Washington's relationship with political parties in early America?

He thought political parties were a terrible idea

Congress is a __________ legislature with __________ members.

Bicameral, 535

Which type of representation takes place when representatives have the same racial, ethnic, religious, or educational backgrounds as their constituents?

Sociological

Which type of legislation specifies a project or other authorizations to be funded, as well as the location of the project within a particular district?

Pork Barrel

According to the authors of the textbook, in recent years, the House has exhibited considerably more intense partisanship and ideological division than the Senate. Why?

Since House members represent more homogeneous districts in which their party is dominant, they are less willing to seek compromise.

In general, from a sociological representation perspective, how representative is the U.S. Congress?

Congress is not representative at all.

The leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives is the

Speaker of The House

Real power in the Senate is in the hands of the

Majority and Minority leaders

Historically, the most important arenas of congressional policy making have been

standing committees.

Within each committee, hierarchy has usually been based on

seniority.

In a typical congressional session, ____________ percent of bills introduced die in committee.

95

A presidential veto can be overridden by a

two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress.

The ____________ Committee in the House of Representatives allots the time for House debate and decides to what extent amendments to the bill can be proposed from the floor.

Rules

In the Senate, ____________ can be used to "talk a bill to death" unless three-fifths of the Senate vote for ____________.

filibuster; cloture

Typically, party unity is higher in ____________ than in ____________.

The house, The senate

_____________ is/are the effort by Congress through hearings, investigations, and other techniques to exercise control over the activities of executive agencies.

Oversight

______________ is/are the amount of money, approved by Congress in statutes, that each unit or agency can spend

Appropriations

The Congressional Research Service and Congressional Budget Office are examples of ______________, which are designed to provide the legislative branch with resources and expertise independent of the executive branch.

staff agencies

After the 2010 census, it is determined that Texas will gain one seat in the House of Representatives, that Oklahoma will lose one, and Ohio will lose two. This scenario is an example of

apportionment.

Which part of government is the only one that has always been directly elected by the people?

House of Representatives

The process of redrawing the boundaries of congressional districts is called

redistricting

Congress is a

bicameral legislature

The powers of the presidency are outlined in ____________ of the U.S. Constitution.

Article II

The practice of allowing the party's congressional delegates to nominate presidential candidates is known as the

Caucus

What did the framers mean to accomplish by the indirect election of the president?

To make the president responsible to state and national legislatures

In times of crises, presidents have issued executive orders without consulting Congress on the basis of

Inherent powers

If a president wished to make foreign policy without having to get the two-thirds vote in the Senate needed to ratify a treaty, he or she most likely would

make an executive agreement with the head of a foreign nation

In 1973, Congress passed the War Powers Act, which

attempted to limit the president's use of troops in military action without congressional approval.

Some presidents have attached __________ to bills they are approving; these attachments may include instructions for enforcement and the president's interpretation of the legislation

Signing statements

The president's domestic military power includes the power to send federal troops into a state or city

if the president believes sending troops necessary to respond to an emergency or enforce a judicial order.

The presidential power to make rules and procedures for the executive branch, which have the effect and formal status of legislation, is called

executive order

The most important agency in the Executive Office of the President is the

Office of Management and Budget.

When Congress passes sweeping legislation, it often delegates significant power to the executive branch, which gives the president

a great deal of discretion in the way the law is implemented.

historically, first spouses have served what role?

Ceremonial functions

Generally speaking, popular support for a president

declines over time

The first president to effectively use public appeals such as "fireside chats" and speaking tours was

Franklin Roosevelt

The textbook authors argue that, today, every president is strong. What do the authors mean by this?

Modern presidents have more institutional resources than presidents before them.

According to the authors, the decline in popular participation in government and voting has

increased the power of the president.

hich branch of government has the constitutional power to declare war?

Congress

Which of the following is not one of the powers of the president listed in the Constitution?

All of the above

Presidents have used __________ to withhold information on executive branch deliberations from other branches of government.

executive privilege

According to the U.S. Constitution, the president is selected by

Electoral College

More than__ percent of all court cases in the United States are heard in ___ courts.

99, state

Which of the following is not a case in which the federal courts would have jurisdiction?

A case involving burglary of a house

Which of the following factors affect how federal district court judges are chosen?

a. legal experience and good character
b. ideological views similar to the president's
c. senatorial courtesy

The U.S. Supreme Court is made up of one chief justice and ___ associate justices.

8

arties in a case must show _______; that is, they must show that they have a substantial stake in the outcome of a case.

standing

The three steps in the Supreme Court's procedures, in order, are

preparing briefs, giving oral argument, making and writing opinions.

Justices who disagree with the majority decision of the Court may choose to publicize the character of their disagreement in the form of a

dissenting opinion

Justices who agree with the majority decision but disagree with the legal reasoning will likely file a

concurring opinion

Why did Congress confer on federal courts the authority to issue writs of habeas corpus?

Distrust of souther courts after the civil war

Which of the following cases is not an example of judicial activism

ALL ARE EXAMPLES:
a. Bush v. Gore
b. Roe v. Wade
c. Brown v. Board of Education

Today's Supreme Court can best be described as ideologically

conservative

A _____________ is a legal action by which a group of individuals with common interests can file a suit on behalf of everyone who shares that interest.

class action suit

According to the textbook, in recent years, the Supreme Court

has become more involved in political issues.

According to the authors, the Court's most important decisions were

those that protected the freedoms of those whose beliefs or race made them unpopular.

In recent years, the Supreme Court has become

more conservative and has shown more restraint.

Judicial review refers to

the power of the judiciary to examine the constitutionality of state and federal laws.

Where is the right to privacy listed in the Constitution?

The right to privacy is not spelled out anywhere in the Constitution

Jurisdiction refers to

a court's area of authority.

The Supreme Court has jurisdiction over which of the following cases?

ALL
a. cases between two or more states
b. appeals of decision from the U.S. appellate courts
c. appeals of decisions from cases that began in state courts

One will ask you to describe the demographics of the two parties and how that determines what the parties stand for.

More moderates and liberals, Blacks and Hispanics, Women and people from the North tend to be democrats.
White evangelical Protestants, Whites, Males, Conservatives, and people from the South tend to be Republican
Those who make from 20 k to 50 k tend to be Democrats, those who make from 50 k-75k tend to be Republicans

One will ask you to compare the US Congressional voting system (WTA, single member) to the European parliamentary system (PR multi-member)

The plurality voting system is a single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member constituencies. This voting method is also used in multi-member constituencies in what is referred to as an exhaustive counting system where one member is elected at a time and the process repeated until the number of vacancies is filled.United States elections, is simple plurality, first-past-the-post or winner-takes-all. In this voting system the single winner is the person with the most votes; there is no requirement that the winner gain an absolute majority of votes.
EU
Proportional representation (PR) is a concept in voting systems used to elect an assembly or council. PR means that the number of seats won by a party or group of candidates is proportionate to the number of votes received. For example, under a PR voting system if 30% of voters support a particular party then roughly 30% of seats will be won by that party. PR is an alternative to voting systems based on single member districts or on bloc voting; these non-PR systems tend to produce disproportionate outcomes and to have a bias in favour of larger political groups. PR systems tend to produce a proliferation of political parties, while single member districts encourage a two-party system.

Fully describe the power structure in the House and the Senate.

House of Representatives
Structure
• 2 yr. term
• must be a 7 yr U.S. citizen
• must live in district/state representing
• must be 25 yrs. Old
• contains 435 members
• led by Speaker of House
• elected by the people of the state

Powers
• Majority elects Speaker and officers
• Has the sole power to impeach
• Debate usually limited to one hour
• Referral of bills hard to challenge
• Power to begin tax bill
• Breaks tie in Electoral College
• Rules Committee powerful
o Controls time of debate, admissibility of amendments
• Non-germane amendments may not be introduced from floor
• Usually considered first by committees

House of Representatives
Structure
• 2 yr. term
• must be a 7 yr U.S. citizen
• must live in district/state representing
• must be 25 yrs. Old
• contains 435 members
• led by Speaker of House
• elected by the people of the state

Powers
• Majority elects Speaker and officers
• Has the sole power to impeach
• Debate usually limited to one hour
• Referral of bills hard to challenge
• Power to begin tax bill
• Breaks tie in Electoral College
• Rules Committee powerful
o Controls time of debate, admissibility of amendments
• Non-germane amendments may not be introduced from floor
• Usually considered first by committees

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