In January, 1920, Palmer raids in 33 cities broke into meeting halls and homes without warrants. 4,000 "Communists" were jailed, some were deported.
In 1919, the Communist Party was gaining strength in the U.S., and Americans feared Communism.
A. Mitchell Palmer
U.S. Attorney General from 1919 - 1921, directed the Palmer Raids, nicknamed "The Fighting Quaker"
National Origins Act (1929)
a law limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country in the U.S., according to the Census of 1890. It also excluded immigration of Asians.
1921 - First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants. Quota was 357,800, which let in only 2% of the number of people of that nationality that were allowed in in 1890. 1924 - Limited the number of immigrants to 150,000 per year.
Ku Klux Klan
Based on the post-Civil War terrorist organization, the Invisible Empire of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan was founded in Georgia in 1915 by William Simmons to fight the growing "influence" of blacks, Jews and Catholics in US society. It experienced phenomenal growth in the 1920's, especially in the Midwest and Ohio Valley states. It's peak membership came in 1924 at 3 million members, but its reputation for violence led to rapid decline by 1929.
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities.
J. Edgar Hoover
the first director of the FBI, who investigated subversion/radicals
The Federal Bureau of Investigation, founded officially in 1935, investigates criminal activity and domestic intelligence.
Immigration Act (1921)
1952 - Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952, it kept limited immigration based on ethnicity, but made allowances in the quotas for persons displaced by WWII and allowed increased immigration of European refugees. Tried to keep people from Communist countries from coming to the U.S. People suspected of being Communists could be refused entry or deported.
William J. Simmons
the founder of the second Klu Klux Klan, founded in 1915
a flowering of African-American culture and artists, based in NYC in the 1920s
An African-American poet who was very influential during the Harlem Renaissance; wrote "I am a Negro - and beautiful."
James Weldon Johnson
American poet and part of the Harlem Renaissance, he was influenced by jazz music.
a poet and writer from Jamaica who was also prominent during the Harlem Renaissance
Zora Neale Hurston
An African-American novelist and folklorist who was also prominent during the Harlem Renaissance. She wrote Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937)
A very prominent African-American poet during the Harlem Renaissance.
Black leader who advocated "black nationalism," and financial independence for Blacks, he started the "Back to Africa" movement. He believed Blacks would not get justice in mostly white nations.
Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
Founded by Marcus Garvey, it helped press for the creation of black businesses and helping black rights.
Black Star Line
A shipping line that was part of the UNIA. It had many problems - poorly conditioned ships, corruption - but it was regarded as an African-American accomplishment.
Founded in 1909 to improve living conditions for inner city Blacks, evolved into a national organization dedicated to establishing equal legal rights for Blacks.
Nine black boys were accused of raping white women on a train near Scottsboro, Alabama. Despite evidence that the women hadn't been raped at all, the boys didn't have decent lawyers and were up against an all-white jury, so eight of them were sentenced to death. Supreme Court overturned the decision, and eventually the boys gained their freedom, after six to nineteen years.
Young Women's Christian Association, it aimed to help women and further feminism.
League of Women Voters
an organization established by Carrie Chapman Catt. Once women were given suffrage, it sought to organize and direct female voters and is officially non-partisan.
An act that provided federal funds to states to establish prenatal and child health-care, which was fought for by woman activists. But, by 1929, it was terminated because the American Medical Association fought against it.
Equal Rights Amendment
Proposed the 27th Amendment, calling for equal rights for both sexes. Defeated in the House in 1972.
A suffragette who believed that giving women the right to vote would eliminate the corruption in politics.
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
1925 - Prosecution of Dayton, Tennessee school teacher, John Scopes, for violation of the Butler Act, a Tennessee law forbidding public schools from teaching about evolution. Scopes was convicted and fined $100, but the trial started a shift of public opinion away from Fundamentalism.
a movement within the Christian community in the 20s that strove to preserve traditional faith. Largely rural men and woman, they insisted the Bible was to be interpreted literally and opposed evolution.
Clarence Darrow, defended Scopes.
Williams Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan, prosecuted the case, and the famous criminal attorney
Prohibition - 1919: the 18th Amendment outlawed the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors.
An establishment during Prohibition that illegally sold alcohol and were often connected to organized crime.
Someone who illegally makes, smuggles, or sells alcohol.
1919 - 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.
1920 - 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote.
Changed the days for Congress meetings and for the start of the President's term in office.
Repealed Prohibition. States can make laws about how alcohol is used in each state.
Warren G. Harding
Became 29th President in 1920, Republican, promised a "return to normalcy". As a result, his presidency was unadventurous and passive, and he was criticized for having a penchant for gambling and illegal alcohol.
The name given to the administration officers Harding appointed, it was a gang of corrupt politicians and industry leaders.
One of the wealthiest bankers of his day, and along with other business tycoons, controlled Congress.
Albert B. Fall
Secretary of the Interior under Harding, was involved the Teapot Dome Scandal.
1929 - The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills, also known as "Teapot Dome" was taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which leased the land to oil companies. Several Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes. Due to the investigation, Daugherty, Denky, and Fall were forced to resign.
Daugherty was implicated for accepting bribes.
Harding's VP, who became the 30th President in 1923. Also Republican, he also took a passive approach to government and favored small government and laissez-faire economics.
Became the 31st president in 1929. The Stock Market Crash occurred early in his term, and he failed to save the economy.
The other candidate in the 1928 election, a Democrat Catholic.
Pushed by Congress in 1922, it raised tariff rates.
The bill was a plan to raise the prices of farm products. The government could buy and sell the commodities at world price and tariff. Surplus sold abroad. It was vetoes twice by Coolidge. It was the forerunner of the 1930's agricultural programs.
paying for something in installments.
An extremely popular American actor, comedian, and singer, who was Jewish and from Lithuania. He was the lead actor in the first talking picture.
The Jazz Singer
1927 - The first movie with sound, this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer, Al Jolson.
One of the first radio stations to pioneer in commercial radio broadcasting in 1920. By 1922 there were 508 radio stations.
1920's sports heros, Ruth set the baseball record of 60 home runs in one season and Dempsey was the heavyweight boxing champion.
an extremely famous college football player who set many records.
the first woman to swim across the English Channel
A very successful golf player who set many records and won many tournaments, and dominated the sport
A very successful tennis player who set many records, won many tournaments, and dominated the sport
iconic jazz trumpeter who helped found and popularize jazz music.
1913 - Ford developed the mass-produced Model-T car, which sold at an affordable price. It pioneered the use of the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers wages and instituted many modern concepts of regular work hours and job benefits.
The Lost Generation
Writer Gertrude Stein named the new literary movement when she told Hemingway, "You are all a lost generation," referring to the many restless young writers who gathered in Paris after WW I. Hemingway used the quote in The Sun Also Rises. They thought that the U.S. was materialistic and the criticized conformity.
H. L. Mencken
In 1924, founded The American Mercury, which featured works by new writers and much of Mencken's criticism on American taste, culture, and language. He attacked the shallowness and conceit of the American middle class.
He gained international fame for his novels attacking the weakness in American society. The first American to win the Nobel Prize for literature, Main Street (1920) was a satire on the dullness and lack of culture in a typical American town. Babbit (1922) focuses on a typical small business person's futile attempts to break loose from the confinements in the life of an American citizen.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Most critics regard this as his finest work. Written in 1925, it tells of an idealist who is gradually destroyed by the influence of the wealthy, pleasure-seeking people around him.
Prominent playwright during the 1920s whose characters spoke plain, American English and often featured tragedy and depravity.
He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1952. A Farewell to Arms was written in 1929 and told the story of a love affair between an American ambulance driver and a British nurse in Italy during WW I.
Lindbergh flew his airplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, across the Atlantic in the first transatlantic solo flight.
Spirit of St. Louis
Washington Naval Conference
A conference between the U.S, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy, and other nations. Resulted in the Five-Power and Four-Power Pacts, and reduced naval capacities.
More commonly known as the Washington Naval Treaty, it limited the naval capacities of the U.S, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy, but later the treaty was ignored or broken.
A treaty by the U.S, Britain, Japan, and France, that agreed to respect territory possessions in the Pacific. Terminated the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.
"Pact of Paris" or "Treaty for the Renunciation of War," it made war illegal as a tool of national policy, allowing only defensive war. The Treaty was generally believed to be useless.
Dawes Plan (1924)
Post-WW I depression in Germany left it unable to pay reparation and Germany defaulted on its payments in 1923. In 1924, U.S. Vice President Charles Dawes formulated a plan to allow Germany to make its reparation payments in annual installments. This plan was renegotiated and modified in 1929 by U.S. financier Owen Young.