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Sedimentary rock is formed from

small particles of sand, silt, and clay

A farmer sprays insecticide on his crops to kill unwated insects. Most of the insects die, and the chemicals have the effect of damaging the DNA of the insects that are not killed. What has happened?

Mutations have arisen that may have altered allele frequencies.

In genetic drift, the allele frequencies in a gene pool change because of

Chance

The separation of populations by barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water is called

Geographic isolation

a plant evolves a high level of poison that enables it to defend itself agasint insects. Soon an insect that perfers to eat this plant evolves an enzyme that breaks down the poison. This is an example of

coevolution

Charles Darwin called the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its specific environment

fitness

According to Darwin's theory of natural selection, individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environmet. Their survivel is due to the

possession of inherited adaptions that maximize fitness

Genetic drift tends to occur in populations that

are small

According to Darwin's theory of natural selection, the individuals that tend to survive are those that have

variations best suited to environmental conditions

One scientist who attempted to explain how rock formations, such as rock layers, for and change over time was

James Hutton

The geographic isolation of two populations of a species tends to increase differences between their gene pools because it

prevents interbreeding between the populations

Darwin noticed that many organisms seemed well suited to

surviving in environments in which they lived

Based on the adaptions Charles Darwin observed in finches and tortoises in the Galapagos, he wondered

if species living on different islands had once been members of the same species

Darwin noticed that many organisms seemed well suited to

surviving in the environments in which they lived

In an experiment, suppose that the wings of fruit flies were clipped short for fifty generations. The fifty-first generation emerged with normal-length wings. This observation would tend to disprove the idea that evolution is based on

inheritance of acquired characteriscs

James Hutton's and Charles Lyell's work suggest that

the earth is serveral million years old

Molecular evidence in support of natural selection includes

the nearly universal genetic code

Which statement about evolution in the Galapagos finches are true

Natural selection on beak size and shape is driven by available food

In the past, mass extinctions encourages the rapid evolution of survivng species

by making new habitats available to them

Which is the first step that occurred in the speciation of the Galapagos finches

founders arrived

The genes carried by all members of a particular population make up the population's

gene pool

The situation in which allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population remain constant is called

genetic equilibrium

Darwin's concept of natural selection was not influenced by

knowledge about the structure of DNA

Gradualism is a pattern of evolution in which

a species evolves at a slow, steady pace

The species of finches that Charles Darwin found on different Galapagos Islands caried in certain structural adaptations. One of the most significant adaptations that Darwin noted was the

bird's different shaped beaks

In a fox population, the allele frequency of a gene for red fur changes from 20 to 30 percent. What can you say about that population of foxes?

The population is evolving

Flowers and pollinating insects are examples of?

Coevolution

When a dairy farmer chooses to breed the cows that give the most milk in the herd, the farmers are following the principle of

artifical selection

A factor that is necessary for the formation of a new species is

reproductive isolation

According to the Hardy-Weinberg principle, genetic equilibrium would be more likely in a oopulation of mice if

no natural selection takes place

What situation might develop in a population having some plants whose flowers open at midday and other plants whose flowers open late in the day?

Temporal isolation

Which of the following statements defines the members of a species?

They mate and produce offspring

In a certain population of 100 individuals, one fourth of the individuals have the genotype AA, half have the genotype Aa, and one fourth have the genotype aa. One day, 10 individuals with the genotype aa leave the area and cross a river into a new habitat. Which process has changed the populations gene pool?

emigration

Which factor would most likely disrupt genetic equilibrium in a large population?

mating that is not random

The economist Thomas Malthus suggested that

without certain checks on population size, there would soon be insufficient food for the growing human population

The process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other over time is called

coevolution

The hypothesis that all species are descended from common ancestors was proposed by

Charles Darwin

Compared to a polygenic trait, a single-gene trait tends to have

fewer phenotypes

A change in the genetic material of a cell is called a

mutation

A pattern in which species experience long, stable periods interrupted by brief periods of rapid evolutionary change is called

punctuated equilibrium

The type of genetic drift that follows the colonization of a new habitat by a small group of individuals is called

the founder effect

James Hutton's and Charles Lyell's work was important to Darwin because these scientists

suggested that Earth was old enough for evolution to have occurred

Lamarck's ideas about evolution include the concept that differences among the traits of organisms arise a resulf of

the actions of organsisms as they use or fail to use body structures

Which statement abou the members of a population that live long enough to reproduce is consistent with the theory of evolution by natural selection?

They are the ones that are best adapted to survive in their environment

The australian flying phalanger is a marsupial flying squirrel. Its appearance, behavior, environment and diet closely resemble those of the American flying squirrel, a placental mammal. This resembalence is most likely due to

convergent evolution

If a mutation introduces a new skin color in a lizard population, which factor might determine whether the frequency of the new allele will increase?

whether the mutation makes some lizards more fit for their environment than other lizards

Although they often live in the same habitat, the American toad breeds earlier in the spring than the Fowler's toad does. What can be inferred from this information?

The two species do not interbreed because of temporal isolation

Charles Darwin viewed the fossil record as

useful support for his theory

A single species that has evolved into several different forms that live in different ways has undergone

adaptive radiation

The frequency of phenotypes for a typical polygenic trait is most often illustrated as

a bell shaped curve

One of the conditions requierd to maintain genetic equilibriumis

no immigration or emigration

All fungi are

heterotrophic eukaryotes

Of the follwoing locations, you would most likely find mosses growing in

shaded ground near a small pond

The flat structure of a leaf blade enables its functionas a photosynthetic organ by

exposing a great surface area to capture energy from sunlight

Most of the photosynthesis in plants takes place in the

mesophyll

In bryophytes, which of the following structures is like a root?

rhizoid

Most plants are

multicellular, eukaryotic autotrophs

Bryophytes must live in moist areas because they lack vascular tissue. For what other reason do they need to live in moist areas?

The sperm of bryophytes need water to swim to an egg

An important role of fungi in an ecosystem is

breaking down dead organisms

Bread mold belongs to which group?

zygomycota

If some of the xylem of a young oak tree were destroyed, it would first interfere with the tree's ability to

conduct water to the leaves

Many cacti, such as saguaros and barrel cacti, have large stems and no leaves. What function of leaves is taken on by the stems of such cacti?

They produce food by photosynthesis.

The tangled mass that makes up the part of a fungus that is below the soil is the

mycelium

What is one reason that vascular plants are larger than nonvascular plants?

Vascular tissue carries water and nutrients much more efficiently than can be carried by diffusion.

In seed plants, the entire male gametophyte is contained in a

pollen grain.

In which of the following environments are green algae NOT found?

dry areas on land

What might a thin tree ring indicate?

a year of drought

The closing of a plant's stomata will

cause less water to be pulled up from the plant's roots.

During pollination in seed plants, pollen grains

are carried to female reproductive structures by wind or animals.

Plants use the energy of sunlight to

carry out photosynthesis.

Which of the following includes a plant embryo, a food supply, and a protective covering?

seed

In seed plants, what is an important difference between gymnosperms and most angiosperms?

In gymnosperms, male gametophytes and female gametophytes are produced in different structures, while in angiosperms they are usually produced in the same structure.

Unlike a dicot, a monocot has

parallel leaf veins.

Oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out of a leaf through the

stomata

Plants and fungi are similar to each other because:

they both have cell walls

A mushroom is a

fruiting body.

The gametophytes of gymnosperms are found inside reproductive structures called

cones.

Which type of vascular tissue carries solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis?

phloem

A seed plant is held in the ground by its

roots

Because bryophytes do not have vascular tissue, they

grow close to the ground.

How have the sporophyte and gametophyte changed as plants have evolved?

The gametophyte has become smaller, and the sporophyte has become larger.

Lichens play an important role in soil formation because they

are often the first organisms to enter barren environments.

If I am 2N before meiosis, after meiosis, I will be:

N

Lichen

mutualism

ring worm

parasitism

mycorrhizae

mutualism

athlete's foot

parasitism

means both organsisms benefit and neither is harmed

mutalism

means one organism benefits and one is harmed

parasitism

Vascular tissue in plants consists of

xylem and phloem.

If plants need oxygen for cellular respiration, then why do plants release oxygen into the atmosphere?

More oxygen is produced during photosynthesis than the plant needs for cellular respiration, so the plant needs to release the extra oxygen.

In plants, the diploid phase is known as

the sporophyte.

Seed-bearing plants differ from all other plants in that

their gametes do not require water for fertilization to occur.

The ancestors of land plants likely evolved from

an organism similar to green algae.

Spores are always:

haploid

In angiosperms, xylem consists of tracheids and

vessel elements.

The root cap is a tough structure that protects the

meristem

During primary growth, a stem

increases in length.

In gymnosperms, the female gametophyte develops inside the

ovules

Which of the following describes the heartwood of a tree?

old xylem that is no longer conducting water

In most plants, which organs are adapted to capture sunlight for photosynthesis?

leaves

In dicots, secondary growth

produces bark and wood.

Gas exchange occurs through the stomata because

of diffusion.

Living on land required that plants

conserve water.

During fungal reproduction, which of the following processes is first to occur after the nuclei of opposite mating types fuse in order to reduce the chromosome number back to normal for a fungus ?

meiosis

Which of the following are areas of unspecialized cells in which mitosis produces new cells that are ready for differentiation?

meristems

The number of seed leaves distinguishes

two groups of angiosperms.

Compare the prey catching (detecting, pursuing, and catching) tools of a jellyfish and a flatworm. Which is the better hunter? Justify your conclusion.

A jellyfish has nematocysts on the tentacles that allow it to "harpoon" prey items that contact it. To assist in moving prey to the tentacles, jellyfish swim using their muscles and nerve net to coordinate movement. This movement has the effect of pulling food particles toward the jellyfish tentacles. A flatworm on the other hand, has chemosensors that detect prey items, a brain to coordinate input from sensors and muscles and cilia to propel the flatworm toward prey. Once it has found the prey, the pharynx will move food into the gastrovascular cavity.
The flatworm would be the better hunter because it not only has effective tools to handle prey, but unlike the jellyfish, it can move toward prey. The jellyfish has to wait in hopes of encountering food items.

The structure responsible for moving water through a sponge is

choanocyte

Oxygen constantly diffuses from water into a flatworm's body. For this to happen, the concentration of oxygen in its body must be

lower than the concentration of oxygen in the water.

Which of the following is not a member of the phylum Platyhelminthes:

Ring worms

Of the following choices, the simplest form of nervous system is a

nerve net

Muscles work together with a support structure called a

skeleton

The Porifera, Cnidaria and Platyhelminthes are all assymetrical. (T or F)

False

The difference between a protostome and a deuterostome is that

the blastopore in a deuterostome develops into the animal's anus.

Muscle tissue exerts force by becoming

shorter

Which of the following is NOT true about flatworms?

They have a coelom

The body symmetry of a cnidarian is

radial in both the medusa and polyp stages.

A marine biologist discovers a new tiny aquatic invertebrate species that lacks gills.The most reasonable hypothesis would be that the animal gets oxygen through

diffusion across its skin.

Intracellular digestion occurs when food is digested

inside specilized cells

Which of the following animals has a body covering that allows for the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide?

flatworms

Many flatworms can detect changes in the amount of light in their environment using groups of cells called

eyespots

Parthenogenesis is a method of reproduction in which

an egg develops without being fertilized by a sperm.

The hydrostatic skeleton of a cnidarian depends on which feature in order to support the animal?

gastrovascular cavity

Cnidarians evolved a truly unique capability that allowed them to capture prey and defend themselves called the:

nematocyst

Which of the following animals has an asymmetrical body plan?

sponge

A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles is

eukaryotic

Cattle depend on microorganisms in their digestive tract to digest the cellulose in their diets. The cattle and the microorganisms are

mutualistic symbionts.

An animal is each of the following EXCEPT

autotrophic

In free-living flatworms, what organ pumps food into the digestive cavity?

pharynx

When an animal's environment changes, sexual reproduction improves a species' ability to

adapt to new living conditions.

In sponges, fertilization occurs when

the sperm is taken in from the surrounding water.

Which of the following is not a member of the Cnidarians:

urchins

In an animal that is bilaterally symmetrical, which two halves mirror each other?

the left and right sides

Organisms that must obtain nutrients and energy by eating other organisms are

heterotrophic

A student looks at a slice of tissue on an unlabeled microscope slide. The student concludes the tissue is not from an animal because the cells in the tissue have

cell walls.

Which of the following are rod-like support structures in a sponge?

spicules

Animals have nervous systems that

gather information.

The notochord is responsible for which function in an embryo?

structural support

Synchronizing gamete (eggs and sperm) release during external fertilization increases the chance that

eggs will be fertilized.

Which chordate characteristic is visible on the outside of an adult cat?

a tail that extends beyond the anus

Which of the following best describes the feeding habits of sponges?

filter feeders

A gastrovascular cavity is the

body space in some invertebrates where digestive and circulatory functions occur.

The Porifera, Cnidaria and Platyhelminthes are all acoelomates.

True

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