Chapter 1: Computer Hardware

70 terms by mpulley6330

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computer

a multipurpose device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output, all according to a series of stored instructions

computer input

whatever is typed, submitted, or transmitted to a computer system

data

symbols that represent facts, objacts, and ideas

processing

the way computers manipulate data

cental processing unit (CPU)

the component where most of the processig takes place or the "brain"`

computer program

the series of instructions that tell a computer how to carry out a processing task

software

the programs that form that sets up a computer to do a specific task

operating system

software that helps a computer control itself to operate efficiently and keep track of data

application software

helps users apply the computer to specific tasks, such as writing documetns and editing photos

memory

an area of a computer that temporarily hold data wairing to be processed, stored, or output

storage

the area where data can be left on a permanent basis when it is not immedately needed for processing

computer output

the result produced by a computer

handheld computer

features a small keyboard or touch-sensite screen and is designed to fit into a pocket, run on batteries, and be used while you are holding it

PDA

(personal digital system) is typicaly used as an electronic appointment book, adress book, calculator, and notepad

personal computer

designed to meed the computing needs of an individual

desktop computer

fits on a desk and runs on power from an electical wall outlet

notebook computer

a small lightweight personal computer that incorporates a secreen, a keyboard, sorage devices, and processing components into a single protable unit

netbook

small notebook computers

tablet computer

a protable computing device featuring a touch-sensitive scteen that can be used as a writing or drawing pad

server

to serve data to computers connected to a network

mainframe computer

a larfe and expensive coputer capable of si,ultaneous processing data for hundreds or thousands of users

supercomputer

one of the fastests computers in the world

computer network

designed to share hardware, data, and software

internet

the worlds largest network, connecting millions of personal computers, servers, mainframes, and supercomputers

centralized computing system

depends of a centally-located computer for processing and storage

distributed computer network

spreadsthe processing and storage tasks among many computers

personal computer systam

a desktop or notebook computer and al the input, output, and storage devices connected to it

system unit

the component that hold the computers curcit boards, CPU, power supply, memory, and storage devices

display device

most desktop computers have separate display device

keyboard

the primary input device

mouse/trackpad

an input device designed to manipulate on-screen grahical objects and contols

storage devices

a hard disk drive, and a a CD or DVD drive

USB ports

ports that make it east to plug in various devices, such as external hard disk drives and USB flash drives

memory card slots

used to transfer data from memory cards that contain data from digital cameras and other handheld devices

sound card and speakers

required for high-quality music, narration, and sound effects

webcam

built in camera that stores photos directly on the compuers hard disk

network circuity

connects a computer to a wired or wireless network

printer

an output device that produces compuer-genrated text or graphical images on paper

motherboard

a unit that contains stoarage devices, a power supply, and the computers main circuit board

intergrated circuit

a super-thin slice of semiconducting material packed with miroscopic eirucit elements such as wiresm transistors, capacitors, logic gates, and resistors

microprocessor

and intergrated circuit designed to process instructions

digital device

works with discrete-distinct and seprate-data, such as the digits 1 and 0

analog device

works with continuouse data

ASCII

requires only seven bits for each character

Extended ASCII

uses eight bits to represent each character

EBCCIC

is another8-bit code used by older IMB mainframe computers

unicode

uses 16 buts and provides codes for 65,000 characters

byte

is composed of eight bits and it is abbreviated as an uppercase B

compatable computers

operate in esentially the same way

embedded microprocessors

designed for specialized tasks

ALU

performs arithmetic operation

control unit

directs microprocessor tasks

registers

holds data that is being processed

RAM

a temporary holding area for data, application program instuctions, and the operatinf system

volatile

requires electrical power to hold data

ROM

a type of memory curcuity that holds the computers startup routine

ROM BIOS

small set of instructions that tel the computer to to access the hard disk

hard disk drive

the main storage device in most computer systems

magnetic storage technology

mictoscopic paricles are magnetized to represent 0's and 1's

head crash

when a read-write head runs into a dust paricle or some other conaminant

optical drive

a small laser light to read data stored on plastic-coated cds, dvds, or blu-ray discs

`CD

provides 650-700 MB or storage space for computer data

DVD

a variation of cd technology with a capacity of 4.7 GB

Blu-ray disc

23 GB for a single layer or 50 GB for dual layers

optical storage technology

etches data onto the disc surface

USB flash drive

a popular removable portabel storage device featuring a built-in connector tha plugs directly into a computers usb drive

solid state storage technology

provides fast access to data and use very little power

surge strip

a row of outlets arranged in a plastic case

uninterruptible power supple

batter backup along witha surge protection

defragmentaion utility

helps your hard disk operate more efficiently

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