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All of the chapters expect Chapter 2.

Chapter 1: A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n)

operational definition

Chapter 1: Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different participants and in different circumstances?

replication

Chapter 1: To study the development of relationships, Dr. Rajiz carefully observed an recorded patterns of verbal and nonverbal behaviors among boys and girl in the school yard. Which research method did Dr. Rajiv employ?

naturalistic observation

Chapter 1: To understand the unusual behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist carefully investigates the client's current life situation and his physical, social-cultural, and educational history. Which research method has the psychologist used?

the case study

Chapter 1: A researcher interested in investigating the attitudes or opinions of a large sample of people is most likely to use which research method?

survey

Chapter 1: Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support "welfare" than "aid to the needy". These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the importance of

wording effects

Chapter 1: The complete set of cases from which samples may be drawn is called a(n)

population

Chapter 1: Which procedure helps to ensure that the participants in a survey are representative of a larger population?

random sampling

Chapter 1: A correlation coefficient is a measure of the

direction and strength of the relationship between two variables

Chapter 1: To geographically represent the correlation between two variables, researchers often construct a

scatterplot

Chapter 1: If college graduates typically earn more money than high school graduates, this would indicate that level of education and income are

positively correlated

Chapter 1: If the correlation between the physical weight and reading ability of children is +0.85, this would indicate that

better reading ability is associated with greater physical weight among children

Chapter 1: Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the strongest degree of relationship between two variables?

-0.67

Chapter 1: Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?

-0.12

Chapter 1: A moderate positive correlation has been found between a person's weight and hours of television watched per week. Which of the following scatterplots best shows this relationship?

The answer is A: 1. Drawing from www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~teachers/2003/regression/classnotesfilledin.doc

Chapter 1: Which of the following scatterplots represents the strongest relationship?

The answer is E: 3. Drawing from www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~teachers/2003/regression/classnotesfilledin.doc

Chapter 1: Which of the following statements is most correct about the relationship between correlation and causation?

Correlation indicates the possibility of a casual relationship, but it does not prove causation.

Chapter 1: A researcher interested in proving a casual relationship between two variables should choose which research method?

experiment

Chapter 1: Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to distinguish between

causes and effects

Chapter 1: To assess the effect of televised violence on aggression, researchers plan to expose one group of children to violent movie scenes and another group to nonviolent scenes. To reduce the chance that the children in one group have more aggressive personalities than those in the other group, the researchers should make use of

random assignment

Chapter 1: Both the researchers and the participants in a memory study are ignorant about which participants have actually received a potentially memory-enhancing drug and which have received a placebo. This investigation involves the use of

the double-blind procedure

Chapter 1: In a drug treatment study, participants given a pill containing no actual drug are receiving a(n)

placebo

Chapter 1: To provide a baseline against which they can evaluate the effect of a specific treatment, experimenters make use of a

control condition

Chapter 1: Which technique most clearly minimizes the likelihood that nay outcome differences between the experimental and control conditions can be attributed to age or personality differences in research participants?

random assignment

Chapter 1: Which of the following is true for those assigned to the experimental group in an experiment?

The experimental group receives the experimental treatment

Chapter 1: Which of the following is true for those assigned to a control group?

The experimental treatment is absent.

Chapter 1: In the hypothesis "Students who study a list of terms in the morning, just after waking up, will recall more terms than students who study the list just before falling asleep," what is the independent variable?

time of day

Chapter 1: In the hypothesis "Students who study a list of terms in the morning, just after waking up, will recall more terms than students who study the list just before falling asleep," what is the dependent variable?

number of terms remembered

Chapter 1:In a group of five individuals, two report annual incomes of $10,000, and the other three report incomes of $14,000, $15,000, and $31,000, respectively. The mode of this group's distribution of annual incomes is

$10,000

Chapter 1: During the past year, Zara and Ivan each read 2 books, but George read 9, Ali read 12, and Marsha read 25. The median number of books read by these individuals was

9

Chapter 1: Mr. and Mrs. Berry have five children ages 2,3,7,9, and 9. The median age of the berry children is

7

Chapter 1: If scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) are normally distributed, with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, what percentage of scores will fall between 85 and 115?

68

Chapter 1: A researcher who deceives participants about the goals of the research needs to fully inform them of the true nature of the study later, according to which ethical principle of human experimentation?

debriefing

Chapter 1: The American Psychological Association have developed ethical principles urging investigators to

explain the research to the participants after the study has been completed

Chapter 1: Which of the following defines ethical principles that should guide human experimentation?

informed consent, protection from harm, confidentiality, debriefing

Chapter 1: A researcher who deceives participants about the goals of the research needs to fully inform them of the true nature of the study later, according to which ethical principle of human experimentation?

informed consent

Chapter 1: A researcher who gathers and analyzes data from student essay test responses without obtaining their permission violates which ethical principle of human experimentation?

confidentiality

Chapter 1: The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a(n)

psychiatrist

Chapter 1: The first psychological laboratory was established by

Wilhelm Wundt

Chapter 1: Clinical psychologists specialize in

providing drugs to treat behavioral disorders

Chapter 3: Social learning theorists emphasize that:

observation and imitation play a crucial role in the gender-typing process

Chapter 3: Two individuals are most likely to share similar personality traits if they are _____ twins who were reared _____.

identical; together

Chapter 3: Critics of evolutionary psychology are most likely to suggest that it:

inhibits progressive efforts to change common social practices

Chapter 3: Research most clearly suggests that personality traits are more strongly influenced by _____ than by _____.

genes; home environment

Chapter 3: Sets of expected behaviors for males and for females are called:

gender roles

Chapter 3: Exceptionally timid and cautious infants tend to become shy and unassertive adolescents. This best illustrates the long-term stability of:

temperament

Chapter 3: Heritability refers to the extent to which:

trait differences among individuals are attributable to genetic variations

Chapter 3: Gender identity refers to:

the sense of being male or female

Chapter 3: The acquisition of traditional masculine or feminine traits and interest is called:

gender-typing

Chapter 3: Identical twins separated at birth and raised in completely different cultures would be most likely to have similar:

temperaments

Chapter 3: Compared to environmentally impoverished rats, rats housed in enriched environments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their:

synapses

Chapter 3: A person's sense of being male or female is his or her gender:

identity

Chapter 3: A stimulating environment is most likely to facilitate the development of a child's:

neural connections

Chapter 3: Identical twins originate from the fertilization of _____ egg cell(s) by _____ sperm cells(s).

a single; a single

Chapter 3: An infant's temperament refers most directly to its:

emotional excitability

Chapter 3: When teased by his older sister, 9-year-old Waldo does not cry because he has leaned that boys are not expected to. Waldo's behavior best illustrates the importance of:

gender roles

Chapter 3: The heritability of intelligence refers to the extent to which:

the variation among people's intelligence can be attributed to their genetic differences

Chapter 3: Gender role refers to:

the set of expected behaviors for males and females

Chapter 3: Personal space refers to:

the distance we like to maintain between ourselves and other people

Chapter 3: The enduring traditions, ideas, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next define their:

culture

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