Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals
the constitutional amendment adopted after the Civil War that states, "no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
equal protection of the laws
part of the fourteenth amendment emphasizing that the laws must provide equivalent "protection" to all people.
the constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
the law that made racial discrimination against any group in hotels, motels, and restaurants illegal and forbade many forms of job discrimination
a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution
1870 to extend suffrage to African Americans.
Small taxes levied on the right to vote that often fell due at a time of year when poor African-American sharecroppers had the least cash on hand. This method was used by most Southern states to exclude African Americans from voting. Poll taxes were declared void by the Twenty-fourth Amendment in 1964.
One of the means used to discourage African-American voting that permitted political parties in the heavily Democratic South to exclude African Americans from primary elections, thus depriving them of a voice in the real contests. The Supreme Court declared White primaries unconstitutional in 1944.
1964: no poll taxes in federal elections.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatically.
1920: guarantees women the right to vote
Equal Rights Amendment
a constitutional amendment originally introduced in Congress in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Despite public support, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures.
the issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
A law passed in 1990 that requires employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accommodations" for people with disabilities and prohibits discrimination against these individuals in employment.
a policy designed to give special attention to or compensatory treatment for members of some previously disadvantaged group
Scott v. Sandford
1857 Supreme Court decision ruling that a slave who had escaped to a free state enjoyed no rights as a citizen and that Congress had no authority to ban slavery in the territories.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal; separate but equal is legal
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Korematsu v. US
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor
Reed v. Reed
the landmark case in 1971 in which the supreme court for the first time upheld a claim of gender discrimination.
Craig v. Boren
In this 1976 ruling, the Supreme Court established the "medium scrutiny" standard for determining gender discrimination.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
1978 state university couldn't admit less qualified individuals solely based on race; no quotas
Adarand Constructors v. Pena
A 1995 Supreme Court decision holding that federal programs that classify people by race, even for an ostensibly benign purpose such as expanding opportunities for minorities, should be presumed to be unconstitutional.
Grutter v. Bollinger
U of Michigan CAN use race as one of many factors of admission (2003)
Gratz. v. Bollinger
U of Michigan CAN'T give minories an extra 20 points (2003)