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mitochondria

they convert food to energy

endoplasmic reticulum

carries proteins and minerals

ribosomes

make the proteins the ER carries

golgi bodies

recieves, package, and distribute proteins among the cells

choroplasts

captures energy from the sun

vacuoles

storage areas for the proteins

lysosomes

break down certain materials

organelles

have special jobs

cytoplasm

surrounded by cell membrane has hereditary material

nucleus

directs cells functions

nucleolus

inside the nucleus; builds proteins

cell wall

ONLY in plant cell and bacteria; outer protective layer

cell membrane

outer layer of cell; controls what goes in and out;

cytoplasm

gel-like mixture surrounded by cell membrane; contains hereditary material

vacuole

membrane bound sac for storage, digestion and waste removal; contains water solution and helps plants maintain shape

nucleus

directs cells functions; like a brain; contains DNA

nucleolus

inside the nucleus; contains RNA to build proteins

mitochondria

produces energy through chemical reaction (breaking down fats and carbohydrates); controls level of water in other cell materials

rough ER

moves material around in cell; has ribosomes embedded in the surface

cell membrane

outer layer of cell; controls what goes in and out; double layer

ribosomes

1000s in every cell on ER and floating through; used to make proteins for cell

lysosomes

break down foods

golgi bodies

Recieve, package, and distribute proteins and other minerals among the cells

cell wall

ONLY in plant cell and bacteria; outer protective layer

chloroplast

usually found in plant cells; contains green chlorophyll; where photosynthesis happens

cell

the smallest unit that is capable of performing life function

environment

includes all living and nonliving things around you

social environment

family, neighbors, educational opportunities; job opportunities

cultural background

the beliefs, customs, and traditions of a specific group of people

evaluate

determine the quality of

risk

the chance that something harmful may happen to your health and wellness

consequences

results of actions

benefits

positive things

cumulative risk

when one risk factor adds to another to increase danger

prevention

taking steps to avoid something

abstinence

the conscious, active choice not to participate in high risk behaviors; choosing not to smoke; stay away from alcohol and illegal drugs

technology

how people change the world around them to meet their needs and solve practical problems

goal of technology

improve the way people live

engineer

A person who is trained in and uses technological and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.

society

a group of people who live together in an area and have certain things in common

science vs technology

science is the study of the natural world to understand how it functions. Technology, on the other hand, changes, or modifies, the natural world to meet human needs or solve problems

scientific inquiry

The diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence they gather.

hypothesis

possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question

variables

factors that can change in an experiment

controlled experiment

an experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time

manipulated variable

the one variable that is purposely changed to test a hypothesis

responding variable

the factor that may change in response to the manipulated variable

operational definition

a statement that describes how to measure a variable or define a term

data

facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations

conclusion

A summary of what you have learned from an experiment.

communicating

The sharing of ideas and experimental findings with others through writing and speaking

scientist attitudes

curious, honesty, open, skepticism, and creative.

science

is a way of learning about the natural world

scientist

use skills such as observing, inferring, predicting, classifying and making models to learn more about the world

observing

using one or more of your senses to gather information

Quantitative observations

Observations that deal with a number or amount

Qualitative observation

observations that deals with characteristics that cannot be expressed by numbers

inferring

when you explain or interpret the things you observe

predicting

making a forecast of what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence

classifying

The process of grouping together items that are alike in some way

making models

creating representations of complex objects or processes

life science

is the study of living things

Stereo Head

Two eyepieces, looking through them is like looking through a pair of binoculars, with similar controls for eyestrength correction and interpupilary distance setting

Eyepiece

The part of the microscope you look through. Has a 10x magnification level

Eyepiece diopter setting

Compensates for focusing differences between your eyes, it is very important because it helps prevent eye strain

Focus Knob

Moves the head of the microscope up and down to bring the objectly sharply into view. Most stereo micrsopes have only one focus knob

lighting

Top lighting shines down and reflects off the opaque or solid specimens; bottom lighting shines up through transparent objects.

Rack and Pinion

Most stero and dissecting microscopes have standard "Rack and Pinion" focusing. Turn a knob to slide the head of the micrscope up and down ( closer or farther from the specimen

Stage clips

For holding microscope slides or other thin objects in place on the stage

Stage Plate

When the specimen is placed for viewing; located directly under the objective lens. Some Stero microscopes have reversible black and white sides to provide appropriate contrast with the item being viewed

classification

The process of grouping things based on their similarities

taxonomy

the scientific study of how living things are classified

binomial nomenclature

the system for naming organisms in which each organism is given a unique, two-part scientific name indicating its genus and species

genus

a classification grouping that consists of a number of similar, closely related organisms

species

A group of organisms that are physically similar and can mate with each other and produce offspring that can also mate and reproduce

Carolus Linneaus

A Swedish Naturalist who made a system of naming things, called binomial nomenclature

prokaryote

an organism whose cells lack a nucleus and some other cell structures

eukaryote

organism whose cells contain nuclei. Scientists classify organism in the domain Eukarya into one of four kingdoms protists, fungi, plants, or animals

nucleus

the control center of a eukaryotic cell that directs the cell's activities and contains the information that determines the cell's form and function

protist

a eukaryotic organism that cannot be classified as an animal, plant, or fungus

fungi

a euraryotic organism that has cell walls, uses spores to reproduce, and is a heterotroph that feeds by absorbing food

plant

multicellular eukaryotes that are autotrophs and feed nearly all the heterotrophs on land

Cell

the basic unit of structure and function in an organism

Unicellular

single-celled organisms

Multicellular

organisms that are composed of many cells that are specialized to do a certain task

Stimulus

a change in an organism's surroundings that causes the organism to react

Response

an action or change in behavior

Development

the process of change that occurs during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism

Spontaneous generation

the mistaken idea that living things can arise from nonliving sources

Autotrophs

Organisms that make their own food

Heterotrophs

Organisms that obtain their energy by feeding on others

Homeostasis

The maintenance of stable internal conditions

organism

Any living thing

characteristics of living things

All livings things have a cellular organization, contain similar chemicals, use energy, respond to their surroundings, grow and develop, and reproduce

Growth

is the process of becoming larger

reproduction

the production of new offspring that are similar to the parents

chemical of life

the cells of all living things are composed of chemicals. the most abundant chemicals in cells is water. They have other chemicals called carbohydrates are a cell's main energy source. Two other chemicals protein, and lipids, are the building material of cells

Nucleic acid

are the genetic material - the chemical instructions that direct the cells activities

technology

how people change the world around them to meet their needs and solve practical problems

goal of technology

improve the way people live

engineer

A person who is trained in and uses technological and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.

society

a group of people who live together in an area and have certain things in common

comparing technology and science

science is the study of the natural world to understand how it functions. Technology, on the other hand, changes, or modifies, the natural world to meet human needs or solve problems

scientific inquiry

The diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence they gather.

hypothesis

possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question

variables

factors that can change in an experiment

controlled experiment

an experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time

manipulated variable

the one variable that is purposely changed to test a hypothesis

responding variable

the factor that may change in response to the manipulated variable

operational definition

a statement that describes how to measure a variable or define a term

data

facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations

conclusion

A summary of what you have learned from an experiment.

communicating

The sharing of ideas and experimental findings with others through writing and speaking

scientist attitudes

curious, honesty, open, skepticism, and creative.

science

is a way of learning about the natural world

scientist

use skills such as observing, inferring, predicting, classifying and making models to learn more about the world

observing

using one or more of your senses to gather information

Quantitative observations

Observations that deal with a number or amount

Qualitative observation

observations that deals with characteristics that cannot be expressed by numbers

inferring

when you explain or interpret the things you observe

predicting

making a forecast of what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence

classifying

The process of grouping together items that are alike in some way

making models

creating representations of complex objects or processes

life science

is the study of living things

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