Psychology Final

107 terms by bmsenior

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basic research

pure science to increase knowledge base

applied research

scientific study to solve practical problem

clinical psychology

branch of psychology that assesses and treats people with PDs

psychiatry

branch of medicine dealing with PDs

hindsight bias

tendency to believe, after learning at outcome, that we would have foreseen it

hypothesis

testable prediction

replication

repeating essence of a study

case study

observation technique where one person is studied in depth

survey

technique for determining self-reported attitudes of a group

experiment

research method in which an investigator manipulates independent variables to observe effect on some dependent variable

control group

group not exposed to treatment

random sample

fairly represents a population

independent variable

manipulated experimental factor

dependent variable

outcome factor

placebo effect

results caused by expectations alone

double-blind

procedure in which participants and administrators are ignorant

mean

arithmetic average of scores

median

middle score (half above, half below)

mode

most frequently occurring score

standard deviation

computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean

neuron

nerve cell

dendrite

branching neuron extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward cell body

axon

neuron extension that passes messages through its fibers to form junctions with neurons, muscles, glands

myelin sheath

covers axon to speed neural impulses

threshold

level of stimulation required to trigger neural impulse

synapse

junction between axon tip of sending neuron and dendrite of receiving

neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that cross synaptic gaps

CNS

brain and spinal cord

PNS

sensory and motor neurons that connect CNS to rest of body

sensory neurons

carry incoming information from receptors to CNS

motor neurons

carry outgoing information from CNS to muscles and glands

sympathetic nervous system

division of ANS that arouses

parasympathetic nervous system

division of ANS that calms

brainstem

oldest part, survival functions

medulla

heartbeat and breathing

reticular formation

nerve network, controls arousal

thalamus

sensory switchboard

cerebellum

voluntary movement and balance (little brain)

limbic system

emotions and drives

amygdala

linked to emotion

hypothalamus

maintenance activities, governs endocrine system

cerebral cortex

ultimate control and processing center

frontal (lobe)

speaking, movements, plans, judgements

parietal (lobes)

touch and body position

occipital (lobes)

visual

temporal (lobes)

auditory

Broca's area

controls language expression, muscle movements for speech

Wernicke's area

controls language reception, comprehension

corpus callosum

axons fibers connecting brain hemispheres

plasticity

brain ability to change

perception

organizing and interpreting sensory information

sensation

receiving stimuli

absolute threshold

minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus half the time

difference threshold

minimum difference between two stimuli needed for detection half the time

sensory adaptation

diminished sensitivity due to constant stimulation

figure-ground

organization of visual field into objects

closure

fill gaps to create complete object

depth perception

ability to see in 3D, allows distance judgment

monocular cues

depth cues available to a single eye (e.g. interposition)

binocular cues

depth cues available only to both eyes together (e.g. retinal disparity)

psychokinesis

mind over matter

telepathy

mind to mind communication

clairvoyance

perceiving remote events

precognition

perceiving future events

classical conditioning

type of learning in which one links stimuli to anticipate events

acquisition

in CC, the initial stage where one links NS and US; in OC, strengthening of a reinforced response

extinction

diminishing of CR

generalization

tendency for similar stimuli to elicit similar response

discrimination

ability to distinguish between CS and irrelevant stimuli

operant conditioning

type of learning in which behavior is strengthened or weakened with reinforcement or punishment

Skinner box

operant chamber, animal presses bar to get food

shaping

reinforcing behaviors closer and closer to those desired

reinforcer

increases behavior it follows

primary reinforcer

innately reinforcing stimulus

secondary reinforcer

stimulus that gains power through association with primary reinforcer

fixed-ratio

reinforcement after specific number of responses

variable-ratio

reinforcement after unpredictable number of reponses

fixed-interval

reinforcement after specific time

variable-interval

reinforcement after unpredictable time

punishment

decreases behavior it follows

modeling

observing and imitating specific behavior

Watson

believed human emotions and behaviors are all conditioned responses

amnesia

loss of memory

flashbulb memory

clear memory of emotionally significant event

encoding

processing information into memory

storage

retention of encoded information

retrieval

getting information out of storage

long-term memory

relatively permanent and limitless, includes knowledge, skills, experiences

short-term memory

holds few items briefly (e.g. phone number)

rehearsal

conscious repetition

spacing effect

distributed study yields better retention

serial position effect

tendency to recall best the first and last items in list

imagery

mental pictures

mnemonics

memory aids, especially using imagery and organizational devices

chunking

organizing items into manageable units, often automatic

sensory memory

immediate, very brief recording of sensory information

iconic memory

momentary visual memory

echoic memory

momentary auditory memory

proactive interference

prior learning disrupts recall of new information

retroactive interference

new learning disrupts recall of old information

psychological disorder

deviant, distressful, dysfunctional

fundamental attribution error

tendency to underestimate circumstance and overestimate disposition

central (route to) persuasion

focus on arguments

peripheral (route to) persuasion

focus on incidental cues

conformity

adjusting behavior to coincide with group standard, unspoken pressure

obedience

following direct orders

deindividuation

loss of self-awareness and restraint in groups that fosters arousal and anonymity

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