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All the terms you need to know for public speaking or debate

Abstract words

words that name things, such as ideas and beliefs, that cannot be perceived by the senses.

Analogy

a form of reasoning by comparison.

Anecdote

a brief, often amusing story.

Brainstorming

quickly listing possibilities about a topic without stopping to evaluate each one.

Chronological order

a pattern for arranging details or events according to the order in which they happen in time.

Citation

a statement giving credit to the source of quoted material.

Clarity

the clearness of expression

Clash

a conflict; opposition, especially of views or interests

Cliché

a figurative expression that has been used so often that it has lost its power

Communication

the process of sharing information by using symbols to send and receive messages

Comparison

a statement that shows the similarities between people, places, things, events, or ideas.

Conclusion

the final portion of a speech

Concrete words

words that name things that can be perceived by one or more of the five senses

Connotation

the hidden meaning of a word; the feelings and associations that a words evokes

Context

the surrounding words and sentences

Conviction

the act of being convincing

Credibility

the amount of trust and belief the speaker inspires in an audience; the quality of being believable

Denotation

the dictionary meaning of a word

Dialect

a regional of cultural variety of language differing from standard American English in pronunciation, grammar, or word choice

Diction

the words a speaker selects and the specific ways in which the speaker uses these words

Emotional appeals

statements used to arouse emotional reactions

Emphasis

the force or special attention given to a particular word or point

Enunciation

the distinctness of the sound a speaker makes

Evidence

material that establishes the soundness of a reason

Example

a single instance that supports or develops a statement

Fact

an item of information or a statement that can be proved, or verified, by testing, by observing or by consulting reference materials

Focal point

a central point of attention or interest

Gesture

a movement or position of the hand, arm, body, head, or face that is expressive of an idea, opinion, emotion, etc

Impromptu

a speech given on the spur of the moment with no preparation

Inflection

the upward or downward glide of pitch as a person speaks

Informative Speech

a speech that provides information to an audience

Interpretation

the process of explaining the information that has been selected and organized

Introduction

the beginning of a speech the presentation of one person to another or to a group

Jargon

language that is used by people within a particular group or field, but is not necessarily understood by those outside the group

Monotone

a melody pattern that consists of only one tone

Nonverbal

communication without words

Opinion

a personal belief or attitude

Oral Interpretation

the presentation of a work of literature to a group of listeners in order to express the meaning contained in the literary work

Outline

the essential features or main aspects of something under discussion

Persuasive Speech

a speech that established a fact, changes a belief, or moves an audience to act on a policy

Pitch

the highness or lowness of a sound

Plagiarism

the presentation of another person's work or ideas as if they were the speakers own

Poetry

compressed highly charged language that appeals to emotions and the imagination, usually arranged in lines with a regular rhythm and often with a definite rhyme scheme

Preview

anything that gives an advance idea or impression of something to come

Projection

speaking loudly

Pronunciation

the combining of precisely articulated speech sounds in two distinct words

Prose

the normal form of written or spoken language; any type of speech or writing that is not poetry

Rate

The speed at which a person talks or reads a section aloud

Restatement

the repetition of an idea using different words

Rhetoric

the art or science of all specialized literary uses of language in prose or verse, including the figures of speech

Signpost

something that serves as a clue or indication; sign

Slang

highly informed language that is formed by creating new words or giving common words new meanings

Standard American English

language that follows the rules and guidelines found in grammar and composition books

Statistics

Numerical facts

Stereotype

a biased belief about a whole group of people based on insufficient or irrelevant evidence

Supporting Details

the examples facts, statistics, reasons, anecdotes or expert testimony that a speaker used to back up main ideas

Thesis

a complete sentence that expressed the speaker's most important idea, or key point, about a topic

Tone

the speaker's attitude or feeling toward a subject and an audience

Topical Order

a pattern of organization in which a topic is broken down into parts that are then arranged in an order determined by the speaker

Transitions

bridges between ideas

Universal Appeal

relevance, or relationship, to the experience of all human beings

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