Freshman Exam

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275 terms

science

observing, studying, and experimenting to find the nature of things

technology

application of science for practical purposes

scientific theory

explains observations and is supported by evidence obtained thru scientific investigation

scientific law

statement or equation that reliably predicts events under certain conditions

model

representation of something that is used to understand the real thing

variable

factor that changes in an experiment in order to test hypothesis

controlled variable

variables that are kept constant BC they can affect outcome

independent variable

variable that is changed or controlled by the scientist

dependent variable

variable that is caused by and depends on the independent variable

SI unit

standard units of measure that form the International System of Units

line graph

graph used for displaying data that changes continuously

bar graph

graph that is useful to compare data

pie graph

graph that is used to show parts of a whole

accuracy

statement of how close a measured value is to the true value

precision

statement of how reproducible the measured results are

isotope

atom that has a same # of protons but different # of neutrons

exothermic reaction

reaction in which energy is released

endothermic reaction

reaction in which energy is absorbed by reactants, cause a drop in temperature

plasma

most abundant state of matter, no definite shape or volume, electrically charged

chemical formula

combination of chemical symbols and # to represent a substance

motion

an object's change in position relative to a reference point

frame of reference

a system for specifying the precise location of objects in space and time

displacement

the change in position of an object
always includes direction

distance

measures the path taken

speed

the distance traveled divided by the time interval during which the motion occurred, tells us how fast

velocity

the speed of an object in a particular direction

constant speed

equal distances in equal amounts of time

instantaneous speed

the speed at a given time

acceleration

the rate at which velocity changes over time; and object accelerates if its speed, direction, or both change

centripetal acceleration

acceleration that occurs in circular motion

positive acceleration

means that the object's velocity is increasing--the object is speeding up

negative acceleration

means that the object's velocity is decreasing--the object is slowing down

units of acceleration

meters per second per second

fundamental forces

force of gravity, electromagnetic force, strong and weak nuclear force

net force

The combination of all forces acting on an object

friction

a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact

static friction

the force that resists the initiation of sliding motion between 2 surfaces that are in contact and at rest

kinetic friction

the force that opposes the movement of 2 surfaces that are in contact and are moving over each other

field force

do not require that the objects touch each other

balanced force

do not change motion

unbalanced force

do not cancel completely

sliding friction

when objects slide past each other

rolling friction

when a rounded object rolls over a flat surface

Newton's first law

An object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion maintains its velocity unless it experiences a net force

Newton's second law

The unbalanced force acting on an object equals the object's mass times its acceleration

Newton's third law

For every action force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force

Sir Isaac Newton

a British scientist, described the relationship between motion and force in three laws

heterogenous mixture

does not have a fixed composition, can pick apart the different pieces

suspension

a mixture in which particles of a material are more or less evenly dispersed throughout a liquid or gas

immiscible

Liquids that do not mix with each other

decanting

process of pouring a less dense liquid off a denser liquid, used to separate two immiscible liquids

colloid

a mixture consisting of tiny particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and those in suspensions that are suspended in a liquid, solid or gas

Tyndall effect

scattering of a light beam as it passes through a colloid

emulsion

any mixture of two or more immiscible liquids in which one liquid is dispersed in the other

homogenous mixture

mixture that looks uniform even when you examine it under a microscope because the individual components are too small to be seen

solution

a homogenous mixture throughout which two or more substances are evenly dispersed

solute

the substance that dissolves in the solvent, smaller part

solvent

the substance in which the solute dissolves, larger part

miscible

liquids that form a single layer when mixed

distillation

a method used to separate miscible liquids that have different boiling points

alloy

solid or liquid mixture of 2 or more metals

universal solvent

many substances can dissolve in it

polar

Describes a molecule in which the positive and negative charges are separated

hydrogen bond

the intermolecular force occurring when a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom of one molecule is attracted to two unshared electrons of another molecule

nonpolar

describes a molecule in which the centers of positive and negative charge are not separated

solubility

the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure

concentration

the amount of a particular substance in a given volume of a mixture or solution

concentrated solution

solution that has a large amount of solute

dilute solution

solution that has only a small amount of solute

saturated solution

a solution that cannot dissolve any more solute under the given conditions (temp and pressure)

unsaturated solution

a solution that contains less solute than a standard solution does that is able to dissolve additional solute

supersaturated solution

a solution that holds more dissolved solute than is required to reach equilibrium at a given temperature

molarity

a concentration unit of a solution expressed in moles of solute per liter of solution

acid

any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water

indicator

a compound that can reversibly change color depending on conditions such as pH

ionize

breaks apart into ions

electrolyte

a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts an electric current

base

any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water

pH

a value is used to express the acidity or basicity of a system, indicates concentration of hydronium and hydroxide ions

tenfold

powers of ten increase/decrease in hydronium ion

neutral solution

pH of 7

neutralization reaction

the reaction of acids and bases to form water molecules and salt (some ionic compound)

salt

an ionic compound that forms when a metal atom replaces the hydrogen of an acid

soap

a substance that is used as a cleaner and that dissolves in water

detergent

water-soluble cleaner that can emulsify dirt and oil

soap scum

an insoluble salt and VERY difficult to clean from kitchen and bathroom surfaces

bleach

chemical compound used to whiter or make lighter

disinfectant

a chemical substance that kills harmful bacteria or viruses

antacid

weak base that neutralizes stomach acid

antioxidant

prevent oxygen from reacting with molecules

dissolving process

energy transferred from the solvent to the solute, as well as the attractive forces between their molecules, causes molecules at the surface to dissolve

exothermic

energy is given off

endothermic

energy is absorbed

chemical reaction

a process in which one or more substances is changed into one or more new substances

chemical equation

uses chemical symbols to show what happens during a chemical reaction

reactants

the substances you start with

products

the substances you end up with

ways to describe chemical equations

sentence, word equation, formula equation

arrow

separates the reactants from the products

aq

aqueous solution

aqueous solution

dissolved in water

triangle

shows that heat is supplied to the reaction

element name over arrow

indicate a catalyst was used

catalyst

a substance that speeds up a reaction without being changed by the reaction

synthesis reaction

a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound

decomposition reaction

a reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances

single replacement

a reaction in which one element replaces a second element in a compound

double replacement reaction

a reaction between two compounds where the positive ion of one compound is exchanged with the positive ion of another compound

combustion reaction

a reaction that occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and light

complete combustion reaction

the products will be CO2 and H2O

incomplete combustion reaction

the products will be CO and H2O

6 factors that effect reaction rates

temperature, surface area, concentration, pressure, molecule size, catalyst

chemical energy

energy that is stored in the form of chemical bonds

equilibrium

the state at which a chemical reaction and its reverse occur at the same time and at the same rate

valence electrons

electrons in the outermost energy level

valence electrons

Lewis Dot Structures show the number of _______ of an element

core electrons

electrons that are not valence

organic compound

covalently (nonmetals) bonded compound that contains carbon

hydrogen

most organic compounds contain _____

groups of organic compounds

alkene, alkane, alcohol, alkyne

alkene

organic compound with single and double bonds

alkane

organic compound with single bonds

alcohol

organic compound with a hydroxyl group

alkyne

organic compound with triple bonds

-ane

indicates only single bonds

-ene

indicates a double bond

-anol

indicates a hydroxyl group is present

-yne

indicates a triple bond

hydroxyl group, polar covalent bond

alcohol and water both have _____ and _____

polymer

an organic molecule that is a long chain made of smaller molecules

monomer

repeating subunits that make up a polymer

biochemicals

essential to life and can be made of living things

carbohydrates

sugars and starches that provide energy to living things

glycogen

stored sugars and starches

proteins

Complex polymers made up of amino acid

amino acid

monomers that make up proteins

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