AP Psychology

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The seventeenth century philosopher who believed that the mind is blank at birth and that most knowledge comes through sensory experience

Locke

The biopsychosocial approach emphasizes the importance of different levels of analysis in exploring ________ and _____________

behavior, mental processes

the psychological perspective that places the most emphasis on how observable responses are learned is the _________ perspective

behavioral

A psychologist who conducts experiments solely intended to build psychology's knowledge base is engaged in:

basic research

the first psychology laboratory was established by _______ in the year ______.

Wundt 1879

Today, psychology is a discipline that does/does not connect with a diversity of other fields?

does

Today, psychology is defined as ____________________

scientific study of behavior and mental processes

The psychological views of William James are to those of Edward Titchener as _________ is to ___________

functionalism, structuralism

Juwan eagerly opened an online trading account, believing that his market savvy would allow him to pick stock that would make him a rich day trader. This belief best illustrates:

overconfidence

The scientific attitude of ________ is based on the belief that ideas need to be tested against observable evidence

skepticism

True or false: Animals are used in psychological research more often than they are killed by humane animal shelters

false

True or false: No psychological theory can be considered a good one until it produces testable predictions

True

Events seem more predictable after they have occurred is an example of _____________

the hindsight bias

True or false: Psychologists' personal values can bias both scientific observation and interpretation of data

true

To ensure that other researchers can repeat their work, psychologists use:

operational definitions

Well-done surveys measure attitudes in a representative subset, or ________, of an entire group, or ________.

random sample; population

The four families on your block all have annual household incomes of 25,000. If a new family with an annual income of 75,000 moved in, which measure of central tendency would be most affected?

mean

If shoe size and IQ are negatively correlated, then people with _____ feet have high IQ's

small

What is the mode of the following distribution: 5, 6, 2, 0, 8, 9, 6, 4, 1, 0, 6,

6

In order to determine the effects of a new drug on memory, one group of people is given a pill that contains the drug. A second group is given a sugar pill that does not contain the drug. This second group constitutes the _________.

control group

To prevent the possibility that a placebo effect or researchers' expectation will influence a study's results, scientists employ __________

double blind procedure

Your roommate is conducting a survey to learn how many hours the typical college student studies each day. She plans to pass out her questionnaire to the members of her sorority. How is this flawed?

the sample is not representative of the population of interest

Bob scored 43 out of 70 points on his psychology exam. He was worried until he discovered that most of the class earned the same score. Bobs score was equal to the:

mode

When a difference b/t two groups is "statistically significant," this means that:

the difference is not likely to be due to chance variation

Know how to find the mean of a set of numbers

ok

Rashad, who is participating in a psychology experiment on the effects of alcohol on perception, is truthfully told by the experimenter that he has been assigned to the "high dose condition." With Rashad and the experimenter's knowing this,_________ and _________ will be affected.

Rashad's performance, the experimenter's interpretation

Epinephrine and norepinephrine are _________ that are released by the ________ gland

hormones, adrenal

The pain of heroin withdrawal may be attributable to the fact that under the influence of heroin the brain increases/ceases production of ________.

ceases, endorphins.

The neurotransmitter ACh is most likely to be found at _________ and ________

motor neurons, muscle fibers

What's the major problem with phrenology?

The brain is not neatly organized into structures that correspond to our categories of behavior

When Sandy scalded her toe in a tub of hot water, the pain message was carried to her spinal cord by the _______ nervous system

somatic

A strong stimulus can increase the:

number of times the neuron fires

Der. Hernandez is studying neurotransmitter abnormalities in depressed patients. She would most likely describe herself as a _________ psychologist.

biological

The myelin sheath that is on some neurons ____________.

increases the speed of neural transmission

A neuron will generate action potentials more often when it receive more ________ than ________ inputs

excitatory, inhibitory

Put the following in the correct sequence in the transmission of a neural impulse: axon, cell body, dendrite, and synapse?

dendrite, cell body, axon, synapse

What disease involves the death of nerve cells that produce a vital neurotransmitter?

Parkinson's

Research has found that the amount of representation in the motor cortex reflects the ______________

degree of precise control required by each part.

Most complex activities emerge from the activity of just the right/ just the left/ both hemispheres in the brain.

both

Cortical areas that are not primarily concerned with sensory, motor, or language functions are called __________

association areas

The nerve fibers that enable communication between the right and left cerebral hemispheres and that have been severed in split brain patients form a structure called the:

corpus callosum

Though there is no single "control center" for emotions, their regulation is primarily attributed to the brain region known as the:

limbic system

Following a head injury, a person has ongoing difficulties staying awake(arousal), Most likely, the damage occurred to the:

reticular formation

Beginning at the front of the brain and moving toward the back of the head, then down the skull and back around to the front, what is the correct order of the cortical regions?

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal

Dr. Frankenstein made a mistake during neurosurgery on his monster. After the operation, the monster "saw" with his hears and "heard" with his eyes. It is likely that DR. Frankenstein rewired neural connections in the monster's:

thalamus

A scientist from another planet wishes to study the simplest brain mechanisms underlying emotion and memory. You recommend that the scientist study the ________ of a creature.

limbic system

The brain research technique that involves monitoring the brain's usage of glucose is called a __________

PET scan

If Dr. Rogers wishes to conduct an experiment on the effects of stimulating the reward centers of a rat's brain, he should insert an electrode in to the

hypothalamus

The ______ hemisphere specializes in picture recognition

right

People are biologically predisposed to protect their offspring, fear heights, and be attracted to fertile-appearing members of the opposite sex are beliefs of the _________ perspective

evolutionary

The complete instructions for making an organism is:

the human genome

When the effect of one factor(such as environment) depends on another (such as heredity), we say there is a(n) _______ between the two factors

interaction

each cell of the human body has a total of ___________

46 chromosomes

Dr. Ross believes that principles of natural selection help explain why infants come to fear strangers about the time they become mobile. Dr. Ross is most likely a(n) _______ psychologist

evolutionary

Of the relatively few genetic difference among humans ____ percent are differences among population groups

less than 1

The fertilized egg will develop into a boy if, at conception the sperm contributes a ____ chromosome and the egg contributes a _____ chromosome

Y, X

My sibling and I developed from a single fertilized egg. Who are we? same/opposite identical/fraternal twins

same, identical

The hormone ______ stimulates growth of the male sex organs

testosterone

If raised in a deprived environment, your cortex would be ______ and ______

lighter, thinner

__________ refers to how our knowledge and expectations influence perception

top- down processing

The study of perception is primarily concerned with how we ________________

interpret sensory stimuli

True/ false: the brain processes some information without our awareness

true

True/ False: Stimuli too weak to cross our thresholds for awareness may trigger a response in our sense receptors

true

True/ false Because the "absolute" threshold is a statistical average, we are able to detect weaker stimuli some of the time

true

If you can just notice the difference b/t 10 and 11 pound weights, how much would a second weight be to where you could differentiate from a 100 pound weight?

110

Given normal sensory ability, a person standing atop a mountain on a dark, clear night can see a candle flame atop a mountain 30 miles away. This is a description of visions:

absolute threshold

Finding the cold water of a swimming pool warmer after you have been in it for a while is an example of:

sensory adaption

________ refers to how the physical characteristics of stimuli influence their interpretation

Bottom-up processing

_______ is to recognizing a stimulus as _______ is to interpretating a stimulus

sensation, perception

The perceptual error in which we fail to see an object when our attention is directed elsewhere is ________

inattentional blindness

In shopping for a new stereo, you discover that you cannot differentiate between the sounds of models X and Y. The difference between X and Y is below your:

difference threshold

A decrease in sensory responsiveness accompanying an unchanging stimulus is called:

sensory adaption

Superman's eyes used __________, while his brain used _________

bottom up processing, top down processing

The brain breaks vision into separate dimensions such as color, depth, movement, and form, and works on each aspect simultaneously. This is called:

parallel processing

Neurons involved in color vision are stimulated by one color's wavelength and inhibited by another's is a belief of the ________

opponent-process theory

One light may appear reddish and another greenish if they differ in

wavelength

_______ is when the image falls in front of the retina

Nearsightedness

Wavelength is to ______ as ______ is to brightness

hue, intensity

In the opponent process theory, the three pairs of processes are:

red-green, blue-yellow, black-white

I am a cell in the thalamus that is excited by red and inhibited by green. I am a(an) _____________ cell

opponent-process

The transduction of light energy into nerve impulses takes place in the

retina

In comparing the human eye to a camera, the film would be located in the eye's

retina

______ enable color vision

cones

The process by which sensory information is converted into neural energy is

transduction

______ are highly concentrated in the foveal region of the retina and have a higher absolute threshold for brightness than rods

cones

In order to maximize your sensitivity to fine visual detail you should:

stare directly at the object

Frequency is to pitch as amplitude is to ______

loudness

The place theory of pitch perception cannot account for how we hear high/low pitch sounds

low

The hearing losses that occur with age are especially pronounced for high/low pitched sounds

high

Nerve deafness is caused by damage to the

cochlea

The frequency theory of hearing is better than place theory at explaining our sensation of highest/lowest pitches

lowest

For high/low frequencies, pitch is coded according to place of vibration on the basilar membrane

high

For higher/lower pitches, the rate of neural activity in the auditory nerve matches the sound's frequency

lower

List the correct order of structures through which sound travels after entering the ear. (out of auditory canal, cochlea, eardrum, and middle ear)

auditory canal, eardrum, middle ear, cochlea

Dr. Frankenstein has forgotten to give his monster an important part; as a result, the monster cannot transduce sound. Dr. Frankenstein omitted the:

basilar membrane

75 year old Claude has difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds. Most likely his hearing problem involves:

the hair cells of his inner ear.

Finding that food tastes bland when you have a bad cold or finding it difficult to maintain your balance when you have an ear infection are examples of:

sensory interaction

The principle that one sense may influence another is

sensory interaction

The receptors for taste are located in the

taste buds

What enables you to feel yourself wiggling your toes even with your eyes closed?

kinesthesis

_________ involves information from the muscles, tendons, and joints

kinesthesis

According to the gate-control theory, a way to alleviate chronic pain would be to stimulate the large/small nerve fibers that open/close the spinal gate

large, close

_______ has no special receptors, no single stimulus, and is influenced by both physical and psychological phenomena

pain

Of the four distinct skin senses(warmth, cold, pressure, pain), the only one that has definable receptors is

pressure

The depth cue that occurs when we watch stable objects at different distances as we are moving is

relative motion

The illusion that the St. Louis Gateway arch appears taller than it is wide is based on our sensitivity to which monocular depth cue

relative height

The _____ theory of perception states that the mind organizes sensations into meaningful perceptions

Gestalt

The tendency to organize stimuli into smooth, uninterrupted patterns is called

continuity

When two familiar objects of equal size cast unequal retinal images, the object that casts the smaller/larger retinal image will be perceived as being more distant

smaller

Studying the road map before her trip, Colleen had no trouble following the route of the highway she planned to travel. Colleen's ability illustrates the principle of

continuity

The visual cliff tests an infant's perceptual sensitivity to which depth cue?

texture gradient

When the traffic light changed from red to green, the drivers on both sides of Leo's vehicle pulled quickly forward,giving Leo the disorienting feeling that his car was rolling backward. Which principle explains Leo's misperception?

visual capture

Because the flowers in the foreground appeared coarse and grainy, the photographer decided that the picture was taken too near the sect. This conclusion was based on which depth cue?

texture gradient

As we move, viewed objects cast changing shapes on our retinas, although we do not perceive the objects as changing. This is part of the phenomenon of

perceptual constancy

the phenomenon of size constancy is based upon the close connection b/t an object's perceived ______ and its perceived _______

size, distance

Objects higher in our field of vision are perceived as _________ due to the principle of relative height

farther away

The term gestalt means

whole

Your friend tosses you a frisbee. You know that its getting closer instead of larger because of

size constancy

If you slowly bring your finger toward your face until it eventually touches your nose, eye-muscle cues called _______ convey depth information to your brain

convergence

According to the philosopher _____, we learn to perceive the world

Locke

Kittens and monkeys reared seeing only diffuse, unpatterned light later had difficulty perceiving the [size/color/or shape] of objects

shape

Regina claims that she can bend spoons and levitate furniture. Regina apparently believes she has the power of

psychokinesis

A person claiming to be able to read another's mind is claiming to have the ESP ability of

telepathy

Thanks to _______ psychologists, TiVo and DVR have solved the TV recording problem caused by the complexity of VCRs

human factors

Adults who are born blind but later have their vision restored typically are unable to _______

recognize familiar objects

Disordered behaviors arise from the interaction of _____ and _____.

nature, nurture

The french reformer who insisted that madness was not demon possession and who called for humane treatment of patients was

Pinel

Disorders such as ________ are universal whereas others, such as anorexia nervosa are culture bound

depression

The diagnostic reliability of DSM-IV is high/low

high

The term insanity refers to

legal definitions

True/false: A behavior cannot be defined as abnormal unless it is considered harmful to society

false

True/false: Definitions of abnormal behavior are culture-dependent

true

The fact that disorders such as schizophrenia are universal and influenced by heredity, whereas other disorders such as anorexia nervosa are culture-bound provides evidence for the ______model of psychological disorders

biopsychosocial

Our early ancestors commonly attributed disordered behavior to

evil spirits

true/false: Labels interfere with effective treatment of psychological disorders

false

true/false: Labels may influence behavior by creating self-fulfilling prophecies

true

True/false: The medical model views psychological disorders as sicknesses that are diagnosable and treatable

true

Behavior is classified as disordered when it is _______, ________, and ________.

deviant, distressful, dysfunctional

Many psychologists dislike using the DSM-IV because of its ______ ______ bias

medical model

13 year old Ronald constantly fidgets in his seat at school, frequently blurts out answers without being called, and is extremely distractible. A psychiatrist might diagnose him with

ADHD

Irene occasionally experiences unpredictable episodes of intense dread accompanied by chest pains and a sensation of smothering, since her symptoms have no apparent cause, they would probably be classified as indicative of

panic attack

Joe has an intense, irrational fear of snakes. He is suffering from a

phobia

the _______ perspective would most likely view phobias as displaced responses to incompletely repressed impulses

psychoanalytic

Phobias and obsessive compulsive behaviors are classified as _________ disorders

anxiety

Sharon is continually tense, jittery, and apprehensive for no reason. She would be diagnosed as suffering a(an)

generalized anxiety disorder

Jason is so preoccupied with staying clean that he showers as many as 10 times a day. Jason would we diagnosed as suffering from a(an)

obsessive-compulsive disorder

After falling from a ladder, Joseph is afraid of airplanes, although he has never flown. This demonstrates that some fears arise from :

stimulus generalization

Julia's psychologist believes that Julia's fear of heights can be traced to a conditioned fear she developed after falling from a ladder. This explanation reflects a ______ perspective

learning

which of the following is a person most likely to acquire a phobia(heights, being in public, being dirty)

heights

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