Nutrition Chapter 19

83 terms by trilby331 Plus

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

The potential of a substance to harm someone is known as a
a. hazard.
b. toxicity.
c. risk level.
d. safety level.

b. toxicity.

What term describes the possibility of harm from normal use of a substance?
a. Hazard
b. Toxicity
c. Bioinsecurity
d. Food insecurity

a. Hazard

What term defines the measure of the probability and severity of harm?
a. Risk
b. Safety
c. Hazard
d. Toxicity

a. Risk

What government agency is charged with protecting agriculture and the food supply?
a. The Food Safety and Security Agency
b. The Agricultural and Biosecurity Agency
c. The Antiterrorism Subcommittee on Food Security
d. The FDA subcommittee on Food Safety and Hazards Agency

b. The Agricultural and Biosecurity Agency

Among food-borne infections, what organisms are the: chief cause of illness/chief cause of death?
a. Listeria/Yersinia
b. Salmonella/Listeria
c. Giardia/Campylobacter
d. Campylobacter/Salmonella

a. Listeria/Yersinia

What is the leading cause of food contamination in the United States?
a. Naturally occurring toxicants
b. Food poisoning from microbes
c. Pesticide residues from farmers
d. Food additives from the food industry

b. Food poisoning from microbes

According to the FDA, what is the leading food safety concern?
a. Food additives
b. Pesticide residues
c. Food borne illnesses
d. Environmental contaminants

c. Food borne illnesses

Common symptoms of food borne illness caused by the Salmonella organism include all of the following except
a. diarrhea.
b. vomiting.
c. abdominal cramps.
d. low body temperature.

d. low body temperature.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, how many people in the United States experience food borne illness every year?
a. 0.5 million
b. 12 million
c. 76 million
d. 150 million

c. 76 million

What branch of the Department of Health and Human Services is responsible for monitoring foodborne illness?
a. EPA
b. FAO
c. CDC
d. WHO

c. CDC

What is the international agency that has adopted standards to regulate the use of pesticides?
a. FAO
b. FDA
c. CDC
d. USDA

a. FAO

Which of the following is the most common pathogenic microorganism in U.S. foods?
a. Salmonella
b. Escherichia coli
c. Staphylococcus aureus
d. Clostridium perfringens

c. Staphylococcus aureus

The most common symptoms of foodborne infection include all of the following except
a. fever.
b. cramps.
c. diarrhea.
d. double vision.

d. double vision.

Which of the following foods are associated with illness from Salmonella?
a. Raw vegetables
b. Pickled vegetables
c. Home-canned vegetables
d. Raw meats, poultry, and eggs

d. Raw meats, poultry, and eggs

Which of the following is the major food source for transmission of Campylobacter jejuni?
a. Raw poultry
b. Uncooked seafood
c. Imported soft cheeses
d. Undercooked beef hot dogs

a. Raw poultry

A patient with a high temperature complains of headache, stomach ache, fever, and vomiting. Upon questioning, he admits to eating several raw eggs the day before. The most likely organism causing these symptoms is
a. E. coli.
b. Salmonella.
c. Perfringens.
d. Campylobacter jejuni.

b. Salmonella.

Clostridium botulinum poisoning is a hazard associated with
a. nitrosamines.
b. rotting vegetables.
c. undercooked poultry.
d. improperly canned vegetables.

d. improperly canned vegetables.

A child is brought into the emergency room with breathing difficulties. He also has difficulty swallowing and speaking. The mother mentions that he ate some home-canned beans yesterday. You suspect microbiological food poisoning. The most likely toxin is
a. botulinum toxin.
b. giardiasis toxin.
c. salmonella toxin.
d. campylobacteria toxin.

a. botulinum toxin.

What organism is responsible for producing the most common food toxin?
a. Escherichia coli
b. Vibrio vulnificus
c. Staphylococcus aureus
d. Lactobacillis acidophilus

c. Staphylococcus aureus

Approximately how many people each year are affected by Staphylococcus aureus food-borne illness?
a. 250,000
b. 500,000
c. 750,000
d. One million

d. One million

Which of the following is an example of food intoxication?
a. Addition of alkaline and acidic agents to foods
b. Illness produced by acute overconsumption of high-fat foods
c. Addition of alcohol-containing beverages in the cooking of foods
d. Illness produced from ingestion of food contaminated with natural toxins

d. Illness produced from ingestion of food contaminated with natural toxins

Which of the following is a characteristic of botulism illness?
a. It is rarely fatal and victims usually recover completely
b. It is caused by a toxic compound rather than by invasion of pathogenic bacteria
c. It is caused by ingestion of food contaminated with a combination of aflatoxin and mold
d. It most often occurs from eating foods that were stored under aerobic conditions of high pH

b. It is caused by a toxic compound rather than by invasion of pathogenic bacteria

Which of the following is a characteristic of botulism?
a. A chief symptom is diarrhea
b. A full recovery may take years
c. It is caused by the organism Staphylococcus aureus
d. It is a toxicant produced in foods stored under aerobic conditions

b. A full recovery may take years

What fraction of reported foodborne illnesses can be attributed to the food industry?
a. 1/10
b. 1/3
c. 1/2
d. 4/5

d. 4/5

The industrial application of heat to inactivate most but not all bacteria in a food is commonly known as
a. sanitization.
b. sterilization.
c. pasteurization.
d. depathogenation.

c. pasteurization.

Of the millions of imported shipments of raw foods arriving in U.S. ports each year, approximately what percentage is not inspected by the FDA?

a. Less than 5
b. Less than 20
c. 50
d. 98

b. Less than 20

What system was developed by government regulatory agencies and the food industry to help identify and/or control food contamination and foodborne disease?
a. The Two-Forty-One-Forty rule
b. Safe Handling Certification Program
c. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
d. North American Residue Monitoring Program

c. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points

Which of the following would most likely result from placing cooked hamburger patties on the same plate that held the uncooked patties?
a. Flavor declination
b. Meat juice retention
c. Fat drippings exudation
d. Microbial cross-contamination

d. Microbial cross-contamination

A few years ago a foodborne illness outbreak was reported by a national restaurant chain. After dozens of people were infected, authorities determined that employees of the restaurant had used the same knife to cut raw meat products as they did for produce items such as lettuce. Which of the following terms most likely describes the employees' neglect that led to the patrons of the restaurant becoming ill?
a. Contamination
b. Cross-contamination
c. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
d. Inappropriate monitoring of food temperatures

b. Cross-contamination

What country accounts for most of the reported causes of mad cow disease?
a. China
b. Hong Kong
c. United States
d. United Kingdom

d. United Kingdom

In cows infected with mad cow disease, which of the following tissues is generally free of the infectious agents?
a. Brain
b. Muscle
c. Intestines
d. Central nervous system

b. Muscle

What is the recommended minimum amount of time for washing hands with warm water and soap before preparing or eating food?
a. 5-10 Seconds
b. 20 Seconds
c. ½-1 Minute
d. 3 Minutes

b. 20 Seconds

Why is ground meat more susceptible to microbial contamination than unground meat?
a. It has more surface area
b. It is usually undercooked
c. It has a higher fat content
d. It is not inspected as often

a. It has more surface area

Which of the following is a characteristic of meat contamination?

a. A USDA seal of inspection insures the absence of most harmful bacteria
b. Consumers are not able to detect the presence of harmful bacteria by odor or taste
c. The presence of naturally occurring antibodies in meats slows the growth of harmful organisms
d. Ground meat is very resistant to contamination because of the high heat released by the grinding machines

b. Consumers are not able to detect the presence of harmful bacteria by odor or taste

All of the following are properties associated with the cooking of hamburgers except
a. color alone is usually indicative of "doneness."
b. burgers should be cooked to an internal temperature of 160° F.
c. some burgers will retain some pink color even when cooked to 175° F.
d. some burgers will turn brown before reaching the recommended temperature.

a. color alone is usually indicative of "doneness."

Which of the following is a feature of avian influenza?
a. It can be transmitted by eating infected poultry
b. It is considered a mildly contagious viral infection
c. The risk of bird flu is quite high in some parts of the world
d. Most cases of bird flu result from direct contact with infected birds

a. It can be transmitted by eating infected poultry

The seal "Graded by USDA" that appears on packaged meat and poultry means that the product is
a. uncooked.
b. not hazardous.
c. free of bacteria.
d. assessed for tenderness.

d. assessed for tenderness

You work part-time at a local diner and have noticed that there are a few questionable practices going on behind closed doors. An older employee tells you that the worst of these oversights is the workers' disregard for the "danger" zone. Which of the following applies to this employee's warning?
a. Keeping the freezer at 35° F
b. Serving raw seafood without proper cooking techniques
c. Keeping beef patties on a warm grill (135° F) for up to 3 hours
d. Not disposing of egg shells immediately after use and allowing them to sit on countertops

c. Keeping beef patties on a warm grill (135° F) for up to 3 hours

What unintended benefit is derived from the freezing of fish by the food industry?
a. The fish becomes tenderized
b. Mature parasitic worms are killed
c. Botulinum toxin becomes inactivated
d. The toxins from hepatitis A and B are destroyed

b. Mature parasitic worms are killed

To minimize the possibility of foodborne illness, hamburger should be cooked to an internal temperature (°F) of at least
a. 125.
b. 140.
c. 160.
d. 195.

c. 160.

Consumption of raw oysters is known to cause hepatitis type
a. A.
b. B.
c. C.
d. D.

a. A.

All of the following are characteristics of raw oyster consumption except

a. hot sauces can kill the viruses found in them.
b. some hot sauces can kill the bacteria found in them.
c. some people who drink alcohol are protected from oyster-borne illness.
d. people with weakened immune systems are especially vulnerable to oyster-borne illness.

a. hot sauces can kill the viruses found in them.

What is the minimum recommended safe temperature (°F) to heat leftovers?
a. 140
b. 152
c. 165
d. 180

c. 165

Which of the following foods is best known to transmit hepatitis?
a. Poultry
b. Seafood
c. Legumes
d. Raw vegetables

b. Seafood

All of the following are rules to help prevent foodborne illness except
a. use hands to mix foods.
b. thaw meats in the refrigerator.
c. use a meat thermometer to avoid undercooking.
d. use hot, soapy water to wash hands, utensils, and countertops.

a. use hands to mix foods.

Which of the following practices is safest for minimizing microbial contamination of prepared foods?
a. Store food in a controlled atmosphere of chlorine bleach vapors
b. Restrict the food's exposure at room temperature to a maximum of 4-6 hours
c. Restrict the food's exposure at between 40° F and 140° F to a maximum of 2 hours
d. Store food under air-tight conditions at a temperature of 32° F for a maximum of 1 month

c. Restrict the food's exposure at between 40° F and 140° F to a maximum of 2 hours

All of the following are characteristics of oysters in the diet except
a. they are the primary factor in traveler's diarrhea.
b. eating them raw is a risk factor for some bacterial infections.
c. some oyster-borne microbes are destroyed when the consumer drinks alcohol.
d. many oyster-borne bacteria, but not viruses, are destroyed by some hot sauces.

a. they are the primary factor in traveler's diarrhea.

What is the safe refrigerator storage time for uncooked steaks, cooked chicken, opened packages of lunch meats, and tuna salad?
a. 1-2 days
b. 3-5 days
c. 1 week
d. 2-4 weeks

b. 3-5 days

Which of the following methods of thawing meats or poultry increases health risk?
a. In the refrigerator
b. At room temperature
c. In a microwave oven
d. Under cool running water

b. At room temperature

Which of the following is the most appropriate method to thaw turkey?
a. In the refrigerator
b. At room temperature
c. On top of a warm oven
d. Under very low heat in the oven

a. In the refrigerator

If you suspect that you are suffering from a foodborne illness, appropriate actions to take include all of the following except
a. refrain from eating or drinking any more of the tainted product.
b. drink clear liquids to help combat diarrhea and vomiting, and call a physician.
c. find a portion of the remaining suspected food and ask someone else to taste it to detect any off flavors.
d. find the remainder of the suspected food and store it in the refrigerator for possible inspection by health authorities.

c. find a portion of the remaining suspected food and ask someone else to taste it to detect any off flavors.

You are presenting a general seminar at a food safety convention. At the end of your talk, an audience member barrages you with questions about irradiation of foods causing people to be exposed to radioactive food. How should you respond?
a. Irradiation techniques do not in any way produce radioactive foods
b. There is only cause for concern when treating foods such as milk, grapefruits, eggs, and high-fat meats
c. Radioactive foods have been approved for consumption by the American Medical Association, the FAO and the WHO
d. Cold pasteurization is the only technique that results in radioactive foods and as long as they are avoided, there is no cause for concern

a. Irradiation techniques do not in any way produce radioactive foods

Common foods approved for irradiation include all of the following except
a. eggs.
b. milk.
c. wheat.
d. strawberries.

b. milk.

What are the chances of contracting diarrhea from travel to other countries?
a. 1 in 2
b. 1 in 10
c. 1 in 100
d. 1 in 1000

a. 1 in 2

Which of the following is an example of a food preservation technique?
a. Irradiation used to sterilize spices
b. Carotenoids used to retard formation of nitrosamines
c. Sulfites used to retard growth of pathogenic organisms
d. Nitrites used to form unique radiolytic particles when the food is overheated

a. Irradiation used to sterilize spices

What processing method allows for cartons of milk to be shelved in grocery stores at room temperature?
a. Prolonged pasteurization
b. Boiling for exactly 10 minutes
c. Ultrahigh temperature treatment
d. Combination irradiation/pasteurization

c. Ultrahigh temperature treatment

A patient reports that since returning from overseas travel to a developing country, she has been experiencing stomach cramps and diarrhea. Which of the following foodborne organisms is most likely responsible for these symptoms?
a. E. coli
b. Clostridium botulinum
c. Clostridium perfringens
d. Listeria monocytogenes

a. E. coli

Among the following organisms, which is primarily responsible for causing "traveler's" diarrhea?

a. Vibrio
b. Escherichia coli
c. Staphylococcus aureus
d. Clostridium botulinum

b. Escherichia coli

What is the chief reason for not using irradiation for preserving dairy products?
a. It imparts off flavors
b. It coalesces the fat particles
c. It is inefficient at killing microorganisms
d. It results in high amounts of food radioactive particles

a. It imparts off flavors

A common term to describe the process of irradiation is
a. UHT treatment.
b. radura treatment.
c. cold pasteurization.
d. pulsed electron beam.

b. radura treatment.

Which of the following is inappropriate advice on sanitation for someone traveling to another country?
a. Drink all beverages without ice
b. Drink bottled carbonated beverages
c. Boil the local water before use to kill microbes
d. Eat fruits and vegetables raw with their skins to decrease risk from wash-water contamination

d. Eat fruits and vegetables raw with their skins to decrease risk from wash-water contamination

Which of the following is a feature of irradiated foods?
a. The World Health Organization has not approved food irradiation
b. The labels of all foods must indicate treatment by irradiation except for meats
c. Irradiation of foods such as strawberries and mangoes hastens their ripening
d. The irradiation label is not required on commercially prepared foods that contain irradiated ingredients

d. The irradiation label is not required on commercially prepared foods that contain irradiated ingredients

All of the following describe associations between vegetable preparation and vitamin preservation except
a. vegetables should be washed before cutting to reduce vitamin losses.
b. after a vegetable is picked, vitamin synthesis stops but vitamin degradation continues.
c. vegetables should be cooked in water rather than by steaming to minimize vitamin losses.
d. vegetables should be stored in the refrigerator until used to preserve vitamin content

c. vegetables should be cooked in water rather than by steaming to minimize vitamin losses.

What nutrients in foods are most vulnerable to losses during food handling and preparation?
a. Trace minerals
b. Fat-soluble vitamins
c. Polyunsaturated fats
d. Water-soluble vitamins

d. Water-soluble vitamins

Which of the following are examples of heavy metals?
a. Mercury and lead
b. Iron and chromium
c. Carbon and nitrogen
d. Molybdenum and fluoride

a. Mercury and lead

Which of the following is an example of heavy metal exposure from foods?
a. Cooking foods for prolonged periods in iron skillets
b. Ingestion of food containing high amounts of mercury
c. Ingestion of food supplements containing high levels of calcium and sodium salts
d. Cooking foods over superheated charcoal containing high levels of copper and iron

b. Ingestion of food containing high amounts of mercury

The increase in the concentration of contaminants in the tissues of animals high on the food chain is termed
a. bioaccumulation.
b. hyperconcentration.
c. evolutionary containment.
d. functional high level accumulation.

a. bioaccumulation.

Which of the following is a feature of an organic halogen?
a. Heavy metal
b. Safe additive
c. Toxic chemical
d. Component of most proteins

c. Toxic chemical

What is the primary source of dietary mercury?
a. Seafood
b. Legumes
c. Unfiltered water
d. Undercooked poultry

a. Seafood

Of the following types of seafood, which should be consumed in least amount by pregnant and lactating women?
a. Shrimp
b. Canned light tuna
c. Pollack and catfish
d. White albacore tuna

d. White albacore tuna

All of the following are characteristics of mercury in nutrition except
a. mercury toxicity damages the developing brain.
b. farm-raised fish typically have less mercury than wild-caught fish.
c. larger fish have less muscle mercury due to the dilutional effect of size.
d. the EPA regulates commercial fishing to monitor mercury levels in fish.

c. larger fish have less muscle mercury due to the dilutional effect of size.

Which of the following is a characteristic of heavy metals in the U.S. food supply?
a. Virtually all fish contain mercury
b. Mercury contamination of fish is most severe in tuna
c. Toxicity is most severe in the elderly population group
d. Contamination is usually greater in farm-raised fish than in ocean fish

a. Virtually all fish contain mercury

What was the toxic substance that accidentally found its way into the food chain in the early 1970s and to which almost all of Michigan's residents became exposed?
a. Lead acetate
b. Methylmercury
c. Listeria monocytogenes
d. Polybrominated biphenyl

d. Polybrominated biphenyl

Your friend Mark is an avid organic food consumer. He believes that natural foods are the only way to avoid the chemicals that farmers "poison" their crops with. You warn Mark that not all natural foods are free from toxins; indeed, that many foods contain naturally occurring toxic substances. The example you provide could be the solanine commonly found in
a. beets.
b. broccoli.
c. potatoes.
d. anchovies.

c. potatoes.

What is the principal factor related to solanine concentration in potatoes?
a. Contamination
b. Irradiation malfunction
c. Soil heavy metal content
d. Improper storage conditions

c. Soil heavy metal content

Which of the following is a characteristic of solanine?
a. It is not destroyed by cooking
b. It enhances absorption of lead
c. It antagonizes the thyroid gland
d. It is destroyed when potatoes start to sprout

a. It is not destroyed by cooking

Which of the following is a feature of naturally occurring food toxicants?
a. Lima beans contain deadly cyanide compounds
b. The toxic solanine in potatoes is inactivated by cooking
c. The toxic laetrile in certain fruit seeds is a moderately effective cancer cure
d. Mustard greens and radishes contain compounds that are known to worsen a cholesterol problem

a. Lima beans contain deadly cyanide compounds

Many countries restrict the varieties of commercially-grown lima beans due to the seed's content of
a. cyanide.
b. solanine.
c. goitrogens.
d. hallucinogens.

a. cyanide.

All of the following represent matches between a naturally occurring toxin and its food except
a. solanine in potatoes.
b. goitrogens in cabbage.
c. cyanogens in lima beans.
d. acrylamides in tomatoes.

d. acrylamides in tomatoes.

Government agencies that set tolerance levels for pesticides first identify those foods commonly eaten in large quantities by
a. children.
b. adolescents.
c. adults.
d. elderly.

a. children.

What term is used to describe the highest level of a pesticide that is allowed in a food when the pesticide is used according to label directions?
a. Toxicity level
b. Tolerance level
c. Risk concentration
d. Optimum concentration

b. Tolerance level

What organization is responsible for setting tolerance guidelines for the use of a pesticide on food?
a. EPA
b. FDA
c. WHO
d. DDT

a. EPA

What organization is responsible for enforcing the tolerances that are set for a pesticide on food?
a. EPA
b. FDA
c. WHO
d. DDT

b. FDA

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set