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Which of the following is NOT involved in natural selection?

A. there is always competition for resources
B. organisms differ in reproductive success
**C.There are inheritable variations in populations.
D. The desired traits are chosen by a breeder

The theory of ________ proposed that a series of catastrophes or mass extinctions followed by repopulation could explain why species change over time.

A. descent with modification
B. inheritance of acquired traits
C. uniformitarianism
**D. catastrophism

Two fossilized remains are found and scientists assume the two organisms are different but related. Which of the following would determine the relatedness of these two organisms?

A. homologous structures
B. vestigial structures
C. biogeography
**D. All of the choices could be examined to determine relatedness

Darwin's theory of natural selection to explain evolution is also known as

**A. descent with modification
B. inheritance of acquired characteristics
C. uniformitarianism
D. catastrophism

Evolution is a latin term that comes from the root word meaning

A. species
B. new
C. anti-religious
D. fossils
**E. unrolling

Which of the following ideas was most commonly held in the eighteenth century?

A. evolution by natural selection over time
B. genetic change through mutation
**C. the fixity of species
D. changes in a species through adaptation to the environment

What is the "scala naturae"?

A. species of horse
B. the first theory of evolution
**C. a sequential ladder of life, with humans at the top
D. another name for the theory of special creation

An idea that could be traced back to Plato is that

A. hybrids showed that species could be chagned with time.
**B. variation is due to imperfections in copies of some perfect ideal form.
C. artificial selection of animals by humans proves that evolution can occur.
D. acquired characteristics could be passed from parents to offspring
E. worldwide catastrophes caused extinction, followed by creation of new species

Linnaeus developed his classification system for organisms according to

A. a theory of descent by modification
B. Darwins theory of evolution
C Lamarck's theory of evolution
**D. a theory of special creation and fixity of species.

Which naturalist wrote a 44-volume natural history on plants and animals and suggested migration, environmental influences, isolation, and overcrowding might affect how organisms descent with modifications?

A. Darwin
B. Lamarck
C. Cuvier
D. Lyell
**E. Leclerc

Erasmus Darwin, in his discussion of evolutionary possibilities, included all of the following EXCEPT

A. changes during the development of organisms.
B. comparative anatomy of plants and algae
C. vestigial organs
**D. artificial selection in animal breeding

Lamarck's theory of evolution included the idea that

**A. there is a natural force in all living things that pushes them toward perfection.
B. local catastrophes cause mass extinctions
C. species are only produced through special creation
D. species are fixed and unchanging over time.

Cutting off the tails of mice over several generations should cause the tails of their offspring to become shorter, according to the ideas of which of these scientists?

A. DArwin
**B. Lamarck
C. Cuvier
D. Lyell

In his theory of natural selection, Darwin incorporated the premise that available resources were not sufficient for all members of a population to survive. Darwin adopted these ideas of competition and survival from

A. Erasmus Darwin
**B. Malthus
C. Cuvier
D. Lamarck
E. Plato

Darwin's geometric ratio of increase pertains specifically to

A. the inheritable variations found in a population
B. the artificial selection of traits
C. the inheritance of acquired traits
**D. the overproduction potential of a species

Over many generations man has chosen certain desirable characteristics in dogs. This process is referred to as

A. natural selection
B. inheritance of acquired traits
**C. artificial selection
D. convergent evolution

Who was the author of the book Principles of Geology?

A. Leclerc
B. Lamarck
C. Cuvier
**D. Lyell

Hutton's theory of geological change included all EXCEPT

**A. catastrophic extinction of species
B. slow cycles of erosion and uplift
C. production of layers an sediment through slow deposition
D. extreme geological change

Most of Darwin's observations about changes in species over time and in different environments took place in and near

A. North AMerica
B. Africa
**C. South America
D. Asia
E. Greenland

Natural selection was independently proposed as a means of evolution by DArwin and

A. Lyell
**B. Wallace
C. LeClerc
D. Lamarck

Darwin's observations that there were Patagonian hares but no rabbits in South America would be considered _________ evidence.

A. anatomical
B. biochemical
C. fossil
** D. biogeographical

Darwin's opinion that living forms must be descended from extinct forms was based on ________ evidence.

A. anatomical
B. biochemical
**C. fossil
D. biogeographical

A line of evidence NOT considered by Darwin in his development of the theory of natural selection is

A. comparative anatomy
B. biogeography
C. the fossil record
**D. comparative biochemistry

The organisms on the Galapagos Islands that were most important to the development of Darwin's theory of natural selection were

A. rabbits and hares
B. plants and fungi
**C. tortoises and finches
D. snails and fish
E. monkeys and armadillos

A population must have _____ for natural selection to occur

A. a stable environment
B. abundant resources
C. many individuals
**D. inheritable variation

Which of the following is/are true about natural selection?

A. It acts on genotypes rather than phenotypes
B. It assures the survival of each fit individual
**C. On average, it favors the survival of more young with adaptive characteristics.
D. It always selects for more complex forms
E. All of the choices are correct

Fossils like Archaeopteryx offer evidence linking

A. reptiles and mammals
B. fish and amphibians
C. birds and mammals
**D. birds and reptiles
E. amphibians and reptiles

Transitional forms are seen in the fossil record that links all of these groups EXCEPT

A. birds and reptiles
B. reptiles and amphibians
C fish and amphibians
**D. mammals and birds
E. mammals and reptiles

What evidence would be studied by a biogeographer?

A. plate tectonics
B. amount of genetic similarity
C. ocean currents & wind patterns
D. ranges and migration patterns of animals
**E. all of the choices

Homologous structures such as the bones in wings, flippers, and arms would be studied in the field of

**A. comparative anatomy
B. biogeography
C. the fossil record
D. comparative embryology
E. comparative biochemistry

All of the following are examples of natural selection EXCEPT

A. distribution of dark and light colored peppered moths
B. rise in bacterial resistance to antibiotics
C. reduction in beak length in scarlet honeycreepers
**D. the 150 breeds of dogs developed from ancestral wolves
E. B and D are not examples of natural selection

Birds and insects both have wings, but we do not consider this similarity as evidence of relatedness because

A. bird wings function on different physics principles of lift
B. insect wings are vestigial
**C. the wings are not homologous structures with a common ancestral origin.
D. they did not evolve in the same region or live at the same time period

The post Darwinian view of the world included

A. the age of the Earth is billions of years old
B. species are related by descent
C. an interaction of random variations and environmental conditions
**D. all of the choices are correct
E. B and C only are correct

When previous adaptations in a species are no longer useful in a changed environment,

**A. selection of a different form occurs
B. artificial selection is witnessed
C. fitness is observed
D. All of the choices are correct

Darwin observed that

A. members of a population vary in their functional, physical, and behavioral characteristics.
B. there is a constant struggle for survival of organisms
C. organisms in a normal population differ in reproductive success
**D. All of the choices are correct
E. A and B only are correct

True or False: Erasmus Darwin, Charles Darwin's grandfather, suggested the possibility of evolutionary descent in his writings.

*True

True or False: ANalogous structures serve the same function, are similarly constructed and are inherited from a common ancestor

*False

True or False: Marsupials are more numerous in Australia than South AMerica because of less competition with placental mammals.

*True

True or False: The oldest mammals were large, dinosaur-like creatures that flourished over 600 million years ago

*True

True or False: Alfred Wallace is considered the Father of Zoogeography because of linking geography with the study of animals

*True

True or False: HIV and cancer cells are becoming more drug resistant over time

*True

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