Verbal Sentence Correction / Analyzing GMAT

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Analysis of an Argument
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1. The intro - Introduce the argument in your own words, but with an academic/formal tone, and briefly outline the two main flaws.

Sentence 1 - "The argument that XYZ (paraphrase the arg) is flawed in two critical ways."

Sentence 2 - List the flaws by finding two of the 3 special cases outlined below. "Not only does the argument rely on data that is not necessarily representative, but it also presupposes that a causal relationship exists without sufficient evidence to support that position."

Analysis of an Argument
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2. First flaw - State the flaw the explain the flaw by describing the perils of that reasoning. Cite evidence supporting your analysis by offering an example that demonstrates the problems and risks in making that error.

Sentence 1 - State the Flaw: "Firstly, the arg *flaw 1+."
Sentence 2 - Answer the question "So what?" In other words, explain what's wrong with that flaw, and how it undermines the argument.
Sentence 3 - "For example, ..." (Provide a study, case, historical event that shows how the author's argument is vulnerable with that flaw),

Analysis of an Argument
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3. Second flaw - Exact same format as the first flaw. Begin with "Secondly,". Then describe the perils of the second flaw and cite evidence supporting your analysis by offering an example that demonstrates the problems and risks in making that error.

Sentence 1 - State the Flaw: "Secondly, the arg *flaw 1+."
Sentence 2 - Answer the question "So what?" In other words, explain what's wrong with that flaw, and how it undermines the argument.
Sentence 3 - "For example, ..." (Provide a study, case, historical event that shows how the author's argument is vulnerable with that flaw),

Analysis of an Argument
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4. The Rx paragraph - Offer the author a remedy for each of the flaws committed. Almost always entails informing the author that additional evidence is required to support the claims of the prompt

Sentence 1 - "The argument's flaws can be remedied in two simple steps."
Sentence 2 - "The first flaw could be resolved by..."
Sentence 3 - Provide an example of the type of evidence required to sufficiently resolve that flaw, typically some research, or a specific study "...by citing pertinent statistics, such as those accessible from Department of Commerce."
Sentence 4 - Repeat for the second flaw.

Analysis of an Argument
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5. Conclusion - Re-Paraphrase the argument, and recap its flaws without using repetitive language. Then go on to envision the worst that could happen if the argument in its current form were followed.

Sentence 1 - "In conclusion, argument+"
Sentence 2 - End by describing the risks and perils if the argument as it stands were followed: "If the argument in its current form were followed, then..."
Sentence 3 - After having cited the dangers of the argument, reiterate that it is essential for those flaws to be resolved before this argument is taken seriously and a decision or determination is made.

Analysis of an Issue
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1. The intro - Introduce the issue in your own words, but with an academic/formal tone. Then, choose a side, and briefly outline your two main reasons why your side is right.

Sentence 1 - "On one hand some may claim [state the other side], but on the other hand others correctly argue [state your side].
Sentence 2 - Briefly outline each of the two reasons why your side is right. "Not only [reason 1], but also [reason 2]."

Analysis of an Issue
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2. First Reason - State the reason. Explain the reason. Cite evidence supporting the reason by offering an example.

Sentence 1 - "Firstly, *describe the reason+."
Sentence 2 - Answer the question "So what?" In other words, explain why that side is important in the evaluation of the issue.
Sentence 3 - Provide an example as to how and why that point is vital to consider: "For example, ..." (Provide a study, case, historical event).

Analysis of an Issue
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3. Second Reason - Exact same format as the first reason, except you'd begin with "Secondly,"

Sentence 1 - "Secondly, *describe the reason+."
Sentence 2 - Answer the question "So what?" In other words, explain why that side is important in the evaluation of the issue.
Sentence 3 - Provide an example as to how and why that point is vital to consider: "For example, ..." (Provide a study, case, historical event).

Analysis of an Issue
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4. The Pre-Emptive Strike Paragraph - Refute a point someone taking the other side of the issue would likely raise.

Sentence 1 - "Although some might claim state the likely opposing point+, then outline what's briefly wrong with taking that position (such as "that point conveniently overlooks obvious risks.")+."
Sentence 2 - In more detail, express how such a stance is not the right one to take. Its helpful to contrast the other side with your side.
Sentence 3 - Provide evidence required to demonstrate why that opposing point is weak/wrong

Analysis of an Issue
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5. Conclusion - Re-Paraphrase your side of the issue, and recap the reasons why without using repetitive language. Then go on to envision either the worst that could happen if the argument in its current form were followed, the wonders that could happen if your side were followed, or both.

Sentence 1 - "In conclusion, *re-paraphrase your side of the issue+"
Sentence 2 - End by describing the risks and perils if the other side of the issue were followed, or the great things that could happen if your side were followed, or a blend of both (bad first, good second).

What is an ASSUMPTION?

Something the author takes for granted that is necessary for the argument to be true

Example:Scones must be the best thing at this bakery because it sells more scones than anything else. Conclusion: Scones are best;
Evidence: They sell more scones;
Assumption: Sales volume is a measure of quality

Scope

the argument is dictated by the information given in the conclusion and the premises, by far the most common reason for eliminating answer choices in the arguments section

out of scope

When you see an answer choice that goes beyong the realm of the argument, you can consider it and eliminate it

opposite

When you're dealing with questions that ask you to weaken or strengthen the author's conclusion, be very wary of answer choices that while within the scope, do exactly the opposite of what you want, while it is the scope of the argument, it is the opposite of the answer choice you want and you should eliminate it

extreme

extreme wording is another very common reason for eliminating answer choice in POE

Weaken

Find the answer that makes the central assumption less likely to be true

strengthen

if the author proves his point by making an assumption, you'll include additional data to bolster the assumption....if the author cites a survey in support of his conclusion, you'll give evidence to prove the validity of the survey.etc...

assumption

evaluate how each answer choice contributes to the support of the conclusion

reasoning

will focus more on describing the pattern of reasoning than in paraphrasing the content of the argument, questions of this type may read: Which of the following indicates a flaw in the reasoning above?, Susan's attempt to counter Tim's claim is best characterized as...., Dan's response has which of the following relationships to Aliss'a argument?, The author makes his point chiefly by....

The 4 Step Approach

1. Read the Questions
2. Break it Down
3. Answer the Questions in your own words
4. Process of Elimination

EPIC TIP!

Ask: "What is it referring to?"

3 Topics Must Use IT Instead of THEY

1.) A Nation
2.) An Organization
3.) A Species

Misplace Modifier

A descriptive word or phrase should immediately follow the thing that it modifies

Pronouns

must clearly refer to a noun, and must agree with that noun in gender and quantity

Subject/Verb Agreement

A subject must always agree with its verb

Parallel Construction

Items in alist or items that are being compared, must all contain the same parts of speech and must look the same

Verb Tense

Simple past, present, and past perfect are the three verb tenses most commonly tested on the GMAT.

Use the

When an action started in the past and ....

Simple Past

Has ceased to occur : Alex looked puzzled when you told him the news

Present perfect

Continues to the present: As long as I have known him, Alex has looked puzzled in meetings.

Past perfect

Was completed before some other past action began. : Alex has always looked puzzled in meetings until he got a new boss.

Where

only when referring to an actual location

When

only to denote a moment in time

Inference Questions:

An inference is something that MUST follow based on the information offered.

123TSP

1, 2, 3: Your passage map should include very brief notes about the main point(s) of each paragraph. It should be similar in terms of both brevity and clarity to how you might text message a friend a quick idea (ex: current system flawed, several alternatives exist)
Don't include details in your passage map! You're looking for purpose and structure.

Topic: Broadly what the passage is about? (Ex: US election system)
Scope: Specifically what the passage is about? (Ex: Alternatives to the system)
Purpose: Why the author is writing the passage: + - or = (arguing for/supporting, arguing against/refuting, describing/neutral respectively)

Name 6 Coordinating Conjunction Words?

and, but, or, for, yet, nor

What are the 6 Singular Subjects that need to be memorized?

Another, Anyone, Everyone, Either, Each, and Something.

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