Ongoing coordinated systems of HR policies and management practices which asses, guide, develop, and reinforce performance
Measure and document work related behaviors and outcomes of employee, ususally on a formalized and episodic basis. (Retrospective, Focus on accomplishments)
Attributes of a "Good" performance appraisal system
Job relatedness, Legality, Objectivity, Practicality, Reliability, Variance, Utility, Acceptability, Feedback
1. Data - accuracy
2. Judgments- Inter-rater: consistency of results when more than one person measures performance, Intra-rater
Extent to which a measurement tool actually measures what it is intended to measure
Criteria for Effective Performance Management
1. Fit with strategy
Fit with strategy
Performance management system shoudl aim at achieving employee behavior and attitudes that support the organizations strategy, goals, and culture
Whether or not a measure is valid and reliable, it must meet the practical standard of being acceptable to the people who use it
Specifically tell employees what is expected of them and how they can meet those expectations. (Objective, clear, timely, useful, incentive to change)
method of performance measurement that requires managers to rank employees in their group from highest performer to poorest performer
method performance measurement that assigns a certain percentage of employees to each category in a set of categories
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)
method of performance measurement that rates behavior in terms of a scale showing specific statements of behavior that describe different levels of performance.
Behavioral Observation Scale (BOS)
Variation of a BARS which uses all behaviors necessary for effective performance to rate performance at a task.
Organizational Behavior Modification (OBM)
A plan for managing the behavior of employees through a formal system of feedback and reinforcement
Consistency between a high score on a test and a high level of a construct such as intelligence or leadership ability, as well as between mastery of this construct and successful performance of the job.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
System in which people at each level of the organization set goals in a process that flows from top to bottom, so employees at all levels are contributing to the organization's overall goals; these goals become the standards for evaluating each employee's performance.
360-Degree Performance Appraisal
Performance measurement that combines information from the employees managers, peers, subordinates, self, and customers.
Needs Improvement Situations
1. Misdirected Effort - Low ability & high motivation
2. Underutilizers - High ability & low motivation
3. Dead Wood - Low ability & low motivation
Problem Analysis Guide
1. "I can't do it"
2. "I won't do it"
"I can't do it"
1. Individual Barriers - skills, knowledge, abilities, health (emotional/physical)
2. Organization Barriers - work load, job design, tools, rules
"I won't do it"
1. Individual Sources - personality conflicts, equity considerations, role ambiguity, value conflicts
2. Organization Sources - communications, org. climate, consequences, management styles