# AP Human Geography Part 2 Study Guide

## 53 terms · A study guide for AP Human Geography terms. Part 2 of 4

### Arable land

land that can be used to grow crops

### Arithmetic density

The total number of people divided by the total land area.

### Physiological density

The number of people per unit of area of arable land, The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.

### Agricultural density

The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.

### Demographic transition

change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates, change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

### Doubling time

the time required for a population to double in size

### Natural increase rate (NIR)

Crude death rate subtracted from crude birthrate

### Dot map

maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon such as population

### Crude birth rate (CBR)

The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.

### Crude death rate (CDR)

The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.

### Life expectancy

an expected time to live as calculated on the basis of statistical probabilities

### Total fertility rate (TFR)

The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.

### Infant mortality rate (IMR)

The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.

### Epidemiological transition

Characteristic shift in disease pattern of a population as mortality falls. Acute, infectious diseases are reduced while chronic degenerative diseases increase

### Pandemic

an epidemic that is geographically widespread

### Sex ratio

The number of males per 100 females in the population.

### Dependency ratio

The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.

### Population pyramid

A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.

### Ecumene

The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.

### Industrial revolution

the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation

### Thomas Malthus

English economist: Said that population tends to increase more rapidly than food supplies

### One child policy

Act in China that allows people to have only 1 child in the city and 2 children in the countryside.

### Female infanticide

the intentional killing of baby girls due to the preference for male babies and from the low value associated with the birth of females

### Contraception

the use of devices or drugs to prevent conception

### Carrying capacity

largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

### Medical revolution

Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa.

### Zero population growth (ZPG)

A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.

### Neo Malthusians

group who built on Malthus' theory and suggested that people wouldn't just starve for lack of food, but would have wars about food and other scarce resources.

### Activity space

the space within which daily activity occurs

### Immigration

migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)

### Emigration

movement of individuals out of an area, migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)

### Net-in migration

When the number of immigrants exceed the number of emigrants.(The net migration is positive)

### Net-out migration

When the number of emigrants exceed the number of immigrants. (The net migration is negative)

### Dislocation

An event that causes people to leave their homeland (ex the holocaust)

### Forced migration

human migration flows in which the movers have not choice but to relocate

### Internal migration

Permanent movement within a particular country.

### Inter-regional migration

Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.

### Intervening obstacles

factors that may inhibit migration even if a person is motivated to migrate

### Intervening opportunities

Oppoutunities that may occur during migration that may cause a migrant stop their migration

### Intra-regional migration

Migration that occurs within a one region.

### Pull factors

a factor that draws or attracts people to another location

### Push factors

negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location

### Ravenstein's laws

1. Most migrants only go a short distance
2. Longer-distance migration favors big city destinations
3. Most migration is rural to urban
4. Most migration proceeds step-by-step
5. Each migration flow produces a counter flow
6. Most migrants are adults; families are less likely to make international moves
7. Most international migrants are young males

### Gravity model

(Ravenstein) Predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it. Most people travel a short distance.

### Migration

the movement of persons from one country or locality to another

### Migration transition

Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.

### Guest workers

Largely unskilled laborer, often an immigrant from South and East Asia, brought into the oil-booming countries to fill job openings that the region's native peoples find culturally or economically unacceptable., Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.

### Unauthorized/undocumented immigrants

People who enter a country without proper documents; illegal immigrants

### Counter urbanization

Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.

### Quotas

established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year

### Brain drain

Large-scale emigration by talented people.

### World population clusters

From largest to smallest; East Asia (China, Japan), South Asia (China, India), Europe and North America

### Demographic transition model

Has 5 steps. Stage 1 is low growth (Basically non-existent), Stage 2 is High Growth (Ethiopia), Stage 3 is Moderate Growth (Latin America), and Stage 4 is Low Growth (U.S.A.) and Stage 5 (Denmark & Russia) although not officially a stage is a possible stage that includes zero or negative population group. This is important because this is the way our country and others countries around the world are transformed from a less developed country to a more developed country.