Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

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Photosynthesis

process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches

Autotrophs

organisms that make their own food

Pigment

dry coloring matter (especially an insoluble powder to be mixed with a liquid to produce paint etc)

Chlorophyll

any of a group of green pigments found in photosynthetic organisms

Carotenoid

any of a class of highly unsaturated yellow to red pigments occurring in plants and animals

Thylakoid

A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.

Electron Transport Chain

A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.

NADPH

electron carrier that provides high-energy electrons for photosynthesis

Carbon Dioxide Fixation

The transfer of carbon dioxide to organic compounds

Calvin Cycle

reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars

Aerobic

depending on free oxygen or air

Anaerobic

living or active in the absence of free oxygen

Glycolysis

a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP

NADH

electron carrier that stores energy used to make ATP

Fermentation

a chemical phenomenon in which an organic molecule splits into simpler substances

Calorie

unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure

Cellular Respiration

the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic moelcules

NADP+

one of the carrier molecules that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules

ATP Synthase

large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP

Photosystem

light-collecting units of the chloroplast

Stroma

the supporting tissue of an organ (as opposed to parenchyma)

ATP

a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue

ADP

an ester of adenosine that is converted to ATP for energy storage

NAD+

electron carrier involved in glycolysis

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