Social Studies Exam

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annapolis convention

a national conference that wanted to change the articles of confederation but poor attendence called for a reschedule

ratification

an official approval (p. 154)

bill of rights

the first 10 amendments to the constitution ratified in 1791 (p. 173)

federalists

people who supported ratification of the Consitution (p. 170)

amendments

official change, correction, or addition to a law or constitution (p. 173)

george mason

american patiot who became an antifederalist and refused to sign the constitution (p.170)

federalist papers

a series of essays that defended and explained the Consitution and tried to reassure americans that the states would not be overpowered by the proposed national government (p. 171)

great comprimise

an agreement worked ot at the constitutional convention establishing that a state's population would determine represenation in the lower house of the legislature, while each states would have equal representation in the upper house of the legislature

three fiths comprimise

an agreement worked out at the constitutional convention stating that only three fiths of the slaves ina state would count when determining a sates's population for representation in the lower house of congress (p. 166)

northwest odinance of 1787

legislation passed by congress to establish a political structure for the nortwest territory and creat a system for the admission of new states (p. 155)

land ordinance of 1785

legislation passed by congress authorizing surveys and the division of public lands in the western region of the country (p. 155)

federalism

U.S. system of government in which power is distributed between a central government and individual states

legislative branch

the division of the government that proposes bills and passes them into laws (p. 1670

antifederalists

people who opposed ratification of the Constitution (p. 170)

constitutional convention

a meeting held in philadelphia at which delegates from the states wrote the consitution (p. 164)

popular soverignty

the idea that political authority belongs to the people (p. 167)

virginia plan

the plan for government proposed at the constitutional convention in which the national government would have supreme power and a legislative branch would have to houses with representation determined by state population (p. 164)

daniel shays

revolutionary war officer who led shays's rebellion, an uprising of farmers in western massachusetts that shurt sown the courts so that farmers would not lose their farms for tax debts. he was defeated and condemnded to death, but pardoned. (p. 161)

magna carta

a charter of liberties agreed to by kng john of england, it made the king obey the same laws as citizens (p. 152)

alexander hamilton

american statesman and member of the continental congress and the constitutional convention, he was an author of the federalist papers. he was the first secretary fo treasury under george washington and developed the bank of the united states (p. 238)

reserved powers

powers kept by the states

checks and balances

a system established by the Constitution that prevents any branch of government from becoming too powerful (p. 167)

executive branch

the division of the federal government that includes the president and the administrative departments; enforces the nation's laws

suffrage

voting rights (p. 153)

new jersey plan

a proposal to create a unicameral legislature with equal representation of states rather than representation by population; rejected at the constitutional convention (p. 165)

north west territory

lands including present-day illinois, indiana, michigan ohio, and wisconsin; organized by the northwest oridinance of 1787 (p. 155)

tarrifs

a tax on imports or exports (p. 159)

marbury vs. madison

U.S. surpeme court case that established the principle of judicial review (p. 270)

15th amendment

gave african american men the right to vote

18th amendment

prohbition of alcohol

articles of confederation

the document that created the first central government for the u.s.; it was replaced by the constitution in 1789 (p. 154)

intolerable acts

laws passed by parliament to punish the colonists for the boston tea party and to tighten government control of the colonists (p. 102)

habeas corpus

a court order that requires the government to bring a prisoner of court and explain why he or she is being held

boston tea party

a protest against the tea act in which a group of colonists boarded british tea ships and dumped more than 340 chests of tea into boston harbor (p. 102)

interstate commerace

trade between two or more states (p. 160)

veto

to cancel (p. 184)

19th amendment

womens suffrage

sons of liberty

a secret group that met during the revolutionary war

english bill of rights

a shift of political power from british monarchy to parliament (p. 91)

quorum

the number of members of a group or organization required to be present to transact business legally, usually a majority.

congress

the legislative branch

virginia statute for religous freedom

a document that gave people in virginia feedom of worship and prohibited tax money from being used to fund churches (p. 15)

electoral college

the way of votin for president

propaganda

advertising or persuading people

samuel adams

american revolutionary who led the agitation that led to the boton tea party; he signed the declaration of independence

boston massacre

an incident in which british sodiers fired into a crowd of colonists, killing five people

impeachment process

the process used by a legislative body to bring charges of wrongdoing against a public official (p. 562)

senate

one of the houses of congress

boycott

to refuse to do something

lame duck

the time when the president is almost out of office and it's really hard for him to pass legislation

21st amendment

the repeal of the 18th amendment

parliament

the English congress

patrick henry

a member of the sons of liberty

federal system

a system that divided powrs between the states and the federal government (p. 182)

executive orders

nonlegislative directives issued by the u.s. preisdenet in certain circumstances; executive orders have the force of congressional law

pardons

freedom from punishment

petition

to make a formal request to the government (p. 217)

indict

to formally accuse (p. 218)

james madison

american statesman, he was a delegate to the consitutional convention, the fourth presient of the united states, the author of some of the federalist papers, and is called the father of teh constitutional convention. he led the united states through the war of 1812

double jeopardy

the act of trying a person twice for the same crime (p. 218)

due process

the fair application of the law (p. 218)

eminant domain

the government's power to take personal property to benefit the public

draft

a first copy

impeach

to bring charges against (p. 184)

majority rule

the idea that policies are decided by the greatest number of peoplw (p. 216)

search warrant

a judge's order authorizing the search of a person's home or property to look for evidence of a crime (p. 218)

deport

to send and immigrant back to his or her country of origin (p. 222)

naturalized citizens

a person born in anotehr country who has been granted citizenship in the United States (p. 222)

politicalition committees

an organazation that collects money to distribute to candidates who support the same issues as the contributes (p. 224)

interest groups

a group of people who share common intersest for political action (p. 224)

article 1

the legislature

article 2

the executive

article 3

the judiciary

article 4

relations among states

article 5

amending the constitution

article 6

supremacy of national government

article 7

ratification

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