rigid with slaves... army-society; women treated badly, like most city states in Greece
democratic, culture, politics; most city-states had slaves but Athens did not
Classical Period/ Alexander the Great
500-338 BCE- 2 wars with Persia. Persians invaded (lost). Alexander the Great took over Persian to Indian 30,000 to 50,000 troops
Peloponnesian war (431-404 BCE) was a civil war. Sparta beat Athens in civil war.
What was Hellenic Culture? When? Where?
Science was important. From 600 to 300 BCE Greek thinkers outlined many basic laws of geometry , physics, mathematics, and astronomy. Fear Gods, afterlife. First literary works. Philosophy- Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.Sculptures, architecture.
When did Classical Rome begin? Governed by ...? In ??? Romans rebelled and what began?
753 BCE; monarchy and Etruscans; 509... Roman Republic
The Roman Republic date. What were the Plebian and Patrician?
509-31 BCE; lower and upper class that had a lot of tension during Roman Republic
264-146 BCE against Carthage (former Phoenician colony on African coast) 214-169 BCE- took Greece, The Balkans, and Turkey. Collapse: Republican gov't failed. Julius Caesar- 49-45 BCE. Republic ended in 31 BCE.
The Roman Empire date. First ruler? How it ended?
31 BCE-476 CE; Octavian; Eastern half broke off 1st. By 400s empire was open to barbarian invasion. 410- Rome attacked by Gothic tribes. 476 fall.
313 CE in Rome
Christianity became official religion; Hellenic philosophy
What was the Byzantium Empire?
Former Roman Empire but mostly east, capital: Constantinople- crossroads of Europe/Asia, center of art and culture, church of Hagia Sophia (Islam) Christian Saint paintings peaked
Ruler of Byzantium in 330 CE and capital was named after him
Led to collapse of Byzantium empire... Islam ruler
500's CE- Justinian
I worship like 60000 deities! I'm ...
I worship self and various animal symbols
I worship an unseen spirit world
Shamanism (central Asia, Siberia, Americas)
I'm aboriginal and all spiritual
I worship life force
Animism (Africa, Pacific Islands, Asia)
Zoroastrianism- By whom and when? Based on?
Founded in ancient Persia by Priest Zordaster- 500 BCE Based on Avestas texts. Worship of one god: Ahura Mazda. Ahura's enemy was Ahriman, god of darkness (dualism)
When were the Middle Ages? Early? Middle? High? Late?
500-1500 CE; 500-1000 CE; no such thing!!; 1000-1300 CE; 1300 to 1500 CE. Late Middle Ages- parts of Europe experienced Renaissance, wars, black death.
political, social, and economic organization. Monarchs gave control of lands to trustworthy retainers in return for law, justice, crops, protection, started 700s.started 700s.started 700s.started 700s.started 700s.started 700s.started 700s.started 700s.
Feudalism Hierarchy (P)
Pope(?) King Lords Knights
Rank of Lords
King Prince Duke Marquis Count/Earl Viscount Baron
Who controlled the land in Feudalism and the Manor System?
Nobles; only rich upper class could become knights
code taken from Christianity during High Middle Ages.
small parcel of land that one knight could manage, contained lord's estate, fields, woodlands were???? peasants, not truly free, farmed, built roads, cleared forests, fought battles were???
1100-1300 CE Popes more powerful than kings and wanted what?
The formation of religious communities whose members are not ordained as priests: monks and nuns
1st European monasteries were modeled on ???- Describe it.
Benedictine Order- contemplation and seclusion from worldly affairs (500-1100 CE) 1200s- Dominicans, Franciscans worked outside monastery.
Who were the Vikings? Where were they from? When?
Vikings were expert sailors and fierce warriors northern Europe (Denmark, Norway, Sweden) 800s-1100s.
Raided all of coastal Europe. Settled Iceland and Greenland. They created long lasting kingdoms in NW France and Sicily. Established trade route to Byzantine and Russian state.
Intertwined w/ France politically . 1066- William the Conqueror (Vikings) invaded it. For 400 years- confusion between France and Viking descendants over land. 1100s- common law, monarchy, 1215- Magna Carta (nobility rights). 1200s- nobility formed a Parliament
900s- Capetian dynasty around Paris, extended rule over France. Phillip II Augustus (1180-1223) Tripled size of France (victory over King John of England) 1400s- France defeated England in the Hundred Years War and gained control of Flanders and Burgundy.
When was the 100 years war? What caused it?
1337-1453; Causes- political entanglement of English and French royal families, France's attempt to regain territories, competition over wool trade. Until 1400s- English knights key victories. 1420s- Charles VII and Joan of Arc drove English out of France
Who helped France drive out the English in the 100 years war?
Joan of Arc
Dominated central Europe. Multicultural monarchy (German nobles) Founded in 900s. Followed Charlemagne's state of 800s to 900s. Germans, Italians, French, Hungarians, Slavs, and others. History, religion, clans brought empire together. Golden Bull of 1356 gave nobles rights. Habsburgs-1438- 1918 ruled empire.
Holy Roman Empire
King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of leterature and learning (Holy Roman Empire)
Decentralized, N. controlled by Holy Empire, S. by French, Spanish, Muslims, Byzantines. Dozens of city-states were free. Italy was urbanized, much culture- birthplace of Renaissance. Active in trade. Strong economies. 1300s and 1400s- larger city-states over smaller.
When was Spain and Portugal taken over by Muslims? How long did Spain and Portugal fight the Muslims?
700's; 700 years
Who were the moors and when were they pushed to the South in Spain and Portugal? When were they completely expelled?
Muslims; 1200's; 1492
Where was the crossroads between the Christian Europe and Islamic Middle East?
Byzantium Empire/ Constantinople
Turks and Ottoman Turks
Popes made kings and emperors for armies for these Holy Wars. Reasons- to convert others, to crush heretical Christian movements, to protect against Muslims. Best known Crusades: European Catholics vs. Muslims (Mid. East N. Africa) 1095-1291.
When was the first crusade? Who asked who for help? Who won?
1096-1099; Byzantine asked Christian Europe for help against Seljuk Turks; 1099 reached Jerusalem; European gains
When was the Second Crusade? Third? Fourth? Who won these?
. Second Crusade (1146-1149), third crusade (1189-1192). Third Crusade- Richard I, Phillip II, Frederick I. Fourth Crusade (1202-1204). Second through Fourth- Muslim gains
When was the Renaissance?
Early 1300s- cultural and intellectual revival in southern Europe. By 1400s spread from Italy to rest of Europe. Lasted until 1600.
Where did the Renaissance spread?
Northern Italy, students helped spread education to Europe, 1430s- moveable type printing press, first universities- 900s in Italy. Printing press invented by Johannes Gutenburg (German). Metal characters framed to form pages.
Who was: Patrarch; Giovanni Boccaccio; Giotio; Filippo Brunelleschi; Niccolo Machiavelli; Leonardo da Vinci; Michelangelo; Raphael; Titian?
Poet; Author; Painter; Architect; Philosopher; Artist; Artist; Painter; Painter
Four ruling dynasties of Persia
Achaeminids (558-330 B.C.E.), Selucids (323-83 B.C.E.), Parthians (247 B.C.E.-224 C.E.), Sasanids (224-651 C.E.)