Define Human Geography
Human Geography- focuses on how people make places, how we organize space and society, how we interact with each other in places and across space, and how we make sense of others and ourselves in our locality, region, and world
Define Physical Geography
the study of physical phenomena on Earth
What has been the effect of transportation and communication on places around the globe?
Advances in communication and transportation technologies are making places and people more interconnected. Even with culture encouraging us all to be the same, we still have a collage of religions, languages, and ethnicities. The world is full of diverse places and people.
a set of processes that are increasing interactions, deepening relationships, and heightening interdependence without regard to country borders
What is the main concern about the outcome of globalization?
The main concern about the outcome of globalization is that there won't be individual cultures. Everything is going to turn into a big blob of the same. Global is seen as a blanket smothering the world and its diversity; local is seen as a continuation of the traditional despite the blanket of globalization. Globalization is a set of outcomes that are unevenly distributed and differently manifested across the world.
What do we mean by the "Why of Where" when discussing geography?
Why and how we do things come together in certain places to produce particular outcomes? So what? Why does it matter that things are different across space? What role does a place play in its region and in the world, and what does it mean for the people?
Define "spatial arrangement"
Spatial Arrangement- is how places and phenomena are laid out, organized, and arranged on Earth, and how they appear on the landscape.
Define " spatial distribution"
Spatial Distribution- is the physical location of geographic phenomena across space.
What is the difference between an epidemic and a pandemic?
An epidemic is a regional outbreak of a disease, while a pandemic is a worldwide outbreak of a disease
List the Five Themes of Geography and give a brief definition.
• Location- highlights how the geographical position of people and things on the Earth's surface affects what happens and why.
• Human-Environment- the study of the reciprocal relationship between humans and environments
• Region- an area on Earth's surface marked by a degree of formal, functional, or perceptual homogeneity of some phenomenon
• Place- unique areas on the Earth's surface
• Movement-the mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the surface of the planet.
Define the word "landscape".
Landscape-the material character of a place, the complex of natural features, human structures, and other tangible objects that give a place a particular form
Define "cultural landscape".
Cultural Landscape-the visible imprint of human activity on the landscape
Cartography-the art and science of making maps
What are mental maps?
Mental maps are the images or maps of places that we have in our heads
What is the purpose of creating a map?
The purpose of creating a map is to simplify the world
How does the GIS (geographic information systems) assist the geographer?
Geographers use GIS to compare a variety of spatial data by combining layers of spatial data in a computerized environment, creating maps in which patterns and processes are superimposed. Geographers use the GIS to analyze data- in the process of creating new insights into geographic patterns and relationships.
What do geographers mean when they use the term "scale"?
They mean the territorial extent of something
What can geographers expect to determine by the level of the scale used?
The scale tells us what level of detail we can expect to see and see different patterns at different scales.
What is meant by the term "rescale"?
You create involvement from other people at different scales to create interest and get them to help your position.
What are the criteria used to define a formal region?
What are the criteria used to define a functional region?
Functional region- is the product of interactions, and of movement.
-spatial system-its boundaries are defined by the limits of that system
-the people within the region function together politically, socially, or economically
What are the criteria used to define a perceptual region?
Perceptual regions-are intellectual constructs designed to help us understand the nature and distribution of phenomena in human geography.
Culture- the lifestyles of people and their values and beliefs.
What is a "culture trait"?
Culture trait- a single attribute of a culture
What is a "culture complex"?
Culture complex- is when more than one culture exhibits a particular culture trait , but each will have their own discrete combination of traits (they will not have all of the same traits)
What is a "culture hearth"?
Culture hearth- is an area where cultural traits develop and from which the cultural traits diffuse
What is "culture diffusion"?
Culture diffusion- the spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth (source area) to other places
What is a "culture barrier"?
Culture barrier- certain ideas, practices or innovations that are acceptable and known in one culture but are not known or accepted in another
What is "expansion diffusion"? List its different forms and define each of them.
Expansion diffusion- is when an innovation or idea develops in a hearth and remains strong there while also spreading outward
How does "relocation diffusion differ from expansion diffusion?
Relocation diffusion is when the people who have the innovation or idea move and bring the idea with them and spread it to a new culture while expansion diffusion is when the actual idea moves to a new culture; the people don't move just the idea spreads.
Why are environmental determinism and possibilism discouraged as defining geography?
Everyone agrees that the natural environment affects human activity in some ways, but people are the decision makers and the modifiers, not just the slaves of environmental forces. Environmental determinism and possibilism encourages a line of questioning that starts with the physical environment and asks what it allows. Yet human cultures usually push the boundaries of what once was thought to be environmentally possible by their own ideas and ingenuity. Today it is possible to do many things that are at odd ends with the local environment. They say that the environment runs the human race and that is not exactly the case.
the study of population
What is arithmetic population density?
a measure of total population relative to land size
What is physiologic population density?
the number of people per square mile of arable land
Define the term "population distribution"?
a description of a location on the earth's surface where individuals or groups live
How is population distribution displayed on a map?
on dot maps
Where is the most common place for population groupings to live?
in a place where they can grow food.
List the four regions of the globe that account for the largest population clusters.
East Asia, South Asia, Europe, and North America
What are the two main differences between the European population clusters and the Asian population clusters?
Asian population clusters form in major cities, on the coasts, and along rivers, while European population clusters form around Europe's coal fields.
What is a megalopolis?
a huge urban agglomeration
What is a census?
a poll of the number of people in an area, usually a country
Why do some people feel a census is seriously flawed?
the count isn't accurate. The United States hasn't figured out a way that accurately records the population correctly. The federal government gives money to organizations to help the hungry, homeless, etc. They base the amount of money needed by the amount of needy people there are; if the population count isn't correct then they won't have the right amount of money to fulfill their duties.
Name the three main agencies responsible for collecting data on world population.
The United Nations, The World Bank, and the Population Reference Bureau
What was the first major concern about the world's rapidly growing population?
The first major concern about the world's rapidly growing population was there wouldn't be enough food to sustain all of the people living on Earth.
How has "globalization" affected the concern of the world's rapidly growing population?
Globalization has affected this concern because it was once thought that only the food grown in one country is the food that will sustain that country, but thanks to globalization there is now international trade and commerce. Global interaction affected the concern.
What are the four components used to calculate total population within a confined territory?
Crude birth rate (CBR), Crude death rate (CDR), immigration, and emigration
What is meant by the term "population explosion"?
Population explosion is when doubling time is down and dropping fast; the wait isn't so long anymore for your money, or in this case, the number of people to double.
The world population today is approximately 6.4 billion. How long will it take for today's population to double in size?
What are the conditions cited in Muslim areas where the population growth rate remains high?
The correlation between high growth rates and the low standing of women: where cultural traditions restrict educational and professional opportunities for women, and men dominate as a matter of custom, rates of natural increase tend to be high.
What are the two main factors that are directly related to the reduction of natural population growth rates?
The two main factors that are directly related to the reduction of natural population growth rates are economic prosperity and social dislocation.
Define "Economic prosperity".
if a child can't be supported and cared for because of financial reasons then that child won't be tried for
Define "social dislocation".
women are getting a higher education for a longer time and are getting married later, as a result by the time has come for them to have children it's too late
What methods has India used in the past to stop their rapid population growth?
India has used forced sterilization of any man who had three or more children and traded gun licenses in exchange for sterilization
What methods is India using today to stop their rapid population growth?
the Indian Government is using advertising and persuasion to encourage families to have fewer children
Define the term "natural increase in population".
the difference between the number of live births and the number of deaths in a population
What is the demographic transition model?
the sequence of stages in population growth
List and define the stages of the demographic transition model.
1. Low-growth stage- high birth rate and high death rate lead to a population that varies over time, with little long-term population growth
2. High-growth stage- high birth rate and declining death rate lead to a sustained and significant population increase
3. Moderate-growth rate- declining birth rate combined with already-low death rate lead to continuing population growth
4. Low-growth rate- low birth rate and low death rate lead to a very low rate of growth