This is the place that according to prominent human geographer Carl Sauer, the place that vegetative planting originated. This was largely due to the diversity of climate and topography.
A grass yielding grain for food. ex. oats, wheat, rye, or barley
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for subsistence or economic gain.
Any plant cultivated by people
hunters and gatherers
Before the invention of agriculture, most people were _______ ___ ___________, who usually lived in small bands of fewer than 50 people that migrated frequently. Today less than 0.005 % of the world's population is this, those that do include the Bushman of Namibia and Botswana and Aborigines in Australia.
Mechanized the harvest of grains, such as wheat, allowing farmers to cultivate larger plots; 1831; fueled the large-scale establishment of commercial agriculture in the Midwest
A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans gram while moving over a field.
A flooded field used for growing rice, especially wet rice.
Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots.
Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization.
Geographer from the University of California at Berkeley who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis. This landscape results from interaction between humans and the physical environment. Also introduced the distinction between vegetative ans seed planting.
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family/. Largely LDC's
The production of crops for sale, crops intended for widespread distribution to wholesalers or retail outlets
prime agricultural land
The land that has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops and is also available for these uses.
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations. MDC's all the way/
Geographer who named the 11 Major Agricultural Regions
5 in LDC's ; 6 in MDC's
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Groups that economically rely on (and cultures are based around) a system of moving livestock in herds from pasture to pasture. (Example: Masai of East Africa)
An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
A vast area of grassland and rich soil in south-central South America.
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
slash and burn agriculture
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
The patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning is called ______
South American country that agreed to set aside 1.5 million acres of its rain forest in exchange for the cancellation of 650 million dollars worth of debt.
The movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns, generally lowland areas in the winter, and highland areas in the summer.
a field covered with grass or herbage and suitable for grazing by livestock
intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
Rice planted on dryland in a nursery, then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.
Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing.
to beat out grain from stocks by trampling it
To rid of the undesirable parts, as in separating wheat grain from the unusable chaff; to blow upon; fan
The outer covering of a seed
Growing more than one crop a year on the same land
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
A region of land supporting 2 different crops, Canada , USA MDC's
three field system
a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.
Ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling
Dry seedlike fruit produced by the cereal grasses: e.g. wheat, barley, Indian corn
Wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the summer. - part of the Bread Basket in America (Kansas, OK, Colorado)
Wheat that is planted in the spring and harvested in the summer. Grown in the belt of the Dakotas, Montana, and southern Saskatchewan in Canada.
The most important grain crop in the World.
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
He brought 1st cattle to New World.
The major long drive route north from Texas to Ablilene, Kansas, where cowboys drove herds of cattle to the railroads to be shipped back East for huge profits
Fights caused by some farmers in the Great Plains wanting to build fences and other farmers not wanting to, so they cut each other's barbed-wire fences and shot each other, Typically fought over water rights or grazing rights to unfenced/unowned land, it could pit competing farmers or ranchers against each other
The science of producing fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities.
A form of "truck" farming ..., where special fruits and vegetables that people want are farmed.
Economist whose work turned out to be first real opposition to Malthus. Said Malthus did not take technology into account, said we would find alternatives. Made a point that widespread misery forecast by Malthus hadn't occurred. In 1965, published "The Conditions of Agricultural Growth". Also came up with a model of agricultural development.
Which agricultural system has 1 or 2 crops and has 25 years of lying fallow?
Which agricultural system has medium pop. density and has more than 2 crops and 10 years of lying fallow?
Agricultural system where crops are cleared & utilized for 2 yrs & left fallow for 2 years to allow grasses to grow back.
Which agricultural system has 1 crop each year with only a few months fallow? Just think about it.
Practice of growing many crops together in the same field.
Von Thunen's model
Used to explain the importance of proximity to market in choice of crops on commercial farms. Must combine the value of high yield crop per hectare and the cost of transporting the yield per hectare. (For example something like dairy products can't be located far away from cities because the milk would spoil before they could get it to the city)
The Isolated State
Johann von Thunen's book, developed the first serious treatment of spatial economics and connects it with the theory of rent.