Sickle-cell disease is an example of an inherited mistake in the amino acid sequence.
The term "brown bread" on a label is a guarantee that the bread has been made with a whole- grain flour.
Some ground turkey and chicken products in which the skin is ground in are much higher in fats than lean beef.
When a person ingests a large dose of any single amino acid, absorption of others of its type may be limited.
Carbohydrate has been rightly accused of being the fattening ingredient of foods; therefore, we need to consume fewer starchy foods.
Vegetarians have significantly higher rates of certain cancers than the general population.
Some foods are so high in acid that they are capable of making the acid in the stomach even stronger.
The glycemic index and glycemic load of foods may be important to people with diabetes who must strive to regulate blood glucose control.
Fatty acids may differ from one another:
a. in length
b. in degree of saturation
c. in number of calories
d. a and b
e. b and c
Products of the incomplete breakdown of fat that occurs when carbohydrates are not available are called:
a. protein-sparing products
b. glycogen bodies
c. ketone bodies
d. glucagon products
Which of the following statements best describes individuals who have had their gallbladder removed?
a. the liver stops producing bile
b. they cannot digest food.
c.they must reduce their at intake
d. bile is not delivered into the small intestine
The stomach lining is protected from the very strong acid of the stomach by
b. a coat of mucus
As fatty acids are absorbed through the intestinal lining for transport through the body, which of the following actions takes place?
a. short- chain fatty acids pass directly to individual body cells
b. large-chain fatty acids are formed into lipoprotein for transport in the blood
c. fatty acids are transported through the blood as as separate top layer
d. only a small percentage of fats are absorbed through the intestinal lining
About 95% of the lipids in foods and in the human body are:
When comparing the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in foods, the conversion to glucose will vary because:
a. disaccharides are easily split into monosaccharides in the intestine and absorbed
b. starch is completely digested in the mouth by the enzymes in the saliva
c. sucrose is absorbed into the blood and transported to the liver to be converted to glucose.
d .all starch is very easily broken down to disaccharides and absorbed
Which of the following statements about trans fatty acids is true?
a. they are made by the body
b. their amounts are never listed on food labels
c. they arise when polyunsaturated oils are hydrogenated
d. they occur naturally in foods to a large extent
When attempting to increase intake of the essential fatty acids it would be best to adjust your diet to
a. eat more omega- 6 fatty acids because they are more abundant in foods than omega- 3 fatty acids
b. increase intake of fish containing EPA and DHA because of heart health benefits
c. consume foods that help the body to make linoleic and linolenic acid
d. include a fish oil supplement to make up for the deficiency in omega-3 fatty acids in your diet
A person with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes has just been advised that he should begin a 2100-calorie diet with 45% of the energy coming from carbohydrate. How many grams of carbohydrate would that be?
Approximately what percent calories from fat would be provided by a bowl of soup containing 200 calories and 99 calories from fat?
BHA and BHT are examples of
a. hydrogenated fats
b. unsaturated fatty acids
d. snack foods
Which of the following animal- derived foods contains significant amounts of carbohydrates?
Soluble fiber is described as "viscous" because it:
a. is tough and stringy
b. is indigestible by human enzymes
c. retains its structure
d. forms gel
All of the following cause denaturation of proteins except:
e. salts of heavy metals
DRI recommendations concerning intakes of fats include:
a. consume up to 35% of calories as fat
b. keep saturated fat intake as low as possible
c. keep cholesterol intake at 100 mg
d. a and b
e. a and c
The best way to achieve a desirable amount of fiber is to:
a. include fruits, vegetables, and grains in the diet
b.emphasize whole, unprocessed foods
c. add purified fibers to foods
d. a and b
e. a and c
A desirable intake of dietary fiber is ___________ grams daily, according to the American Dietetic Associations.
EPA and DHA are:
a. not important in nutrition
b. essential fatty acids
c. found in the oils of fish
d. omega- 6 fatty acids
Which of the following foods has the greatest cholesterol lowering effect?
a. wheat bran
d. oat bran
Amino acids are wasted (not used to build protein or nitrogen- containing compounds) whenever there is :
1. not enough energy from carbohydrate and fat
2. low-quality protein
3. too much protein
4. high-quality protein
a. 1 and 3
b. 2 and 4
c. 1, 3, and 4
d. 1, 2, and 3
Hormones plan an important role in regulating blood glucose levels with:
a. insulin releasing glycogen from muscles for body cells to use for energy
b. glucagon decreasing the removal of glucose from the blood during stress
c. glucagon breaking down liver glycogen to provide glucose in times of starvation
d. insulin transporting extra glucose to fat cells for storage
When comparing the digestion and absorption of proteins with fats it is important to know that:
a. proteins are broken down into individual amino acids and absorbed by all intestinal cells at an equal rate
b. larger peptide molecules must be completely broken down into dipeptides to be absorbed into the bloodstream from the intestine
c. cells in the small intestine preferentially absorb different types of amino acids which causes competition by amino acids at the absorption sites
d. each and every amino acid molecule will be absorbed by intestinal cells
Which of the following are characteristic of type 1 diabetes?
a. the person's immune system attacks the cells of the pancreas
b. the pancreas no longer produces insulin
c. the person is usually overweight
d. a and b
e. a and c
Cooking oils should be stored in tightly covered containers in order to
a. prevent them from becoming rancid
b. retard the oxidation process
c. prevent them from losing fat- soluble vitamins
d. a and b
e. a and c
Which of the following nutrients is not required by law to be added to refined grain products?
Which of the following accounts for the differences among the various amino acids?
a. the amine group
b. the side chain
c. the acid group
d. a and b
e. b and c
Which of the following is found in protein but not in carbohydrates or fat?
When the blood glucose level rises after a meal, the first organ to respond is the:
Consuming ___________ fatty fish meals a week will result in the right balance between omega- 3 and omega- 6 intakes.
The strategy of combining two incomplete plant protein sources so that the amino acids in one food make up for those lacking in the other food is called:
a. mutual supplementation
c. simultaneous augmentation
d. a and b
e. b and c
What is the DRI for protein for a 40 year-old male who is 6'4" tall and weighs 180 pounds?
a. 34 grams
b. 49 grams
c. 65 grams
d. 144 grams
Which of the following is not a desirable blood lipid value?
a. low total cholesterol
b. high LDL
c. high HDL
d. low blood triglycerides
Which of the following would be the best dietary advice for someone who needs to lower their blood cholesterol levels?
a. there is nothing you can do with your diet if you have a genetic tendency toward high blood cholesterol
b. you need to drastically limit the amount of cholesterol- containing foods in your diet
c. reduce the intake of saturated and trans fat in your diet to lower LOL levels in the blood
d. increase HDL levels in the blood by eating more grains, fruits, and vegetables
The sequence of amino acids that make up a protein molecule are specified by:
d. the diet
When fructose and glucose are bonded together they form:
a. table sugar
b. malt sugar
c. milk sugar
d. fruit sugar
Approximately __________ grams a day of carbohydrate are needed to ensure complete sparing of body protein in an average-size person
What is the most accurate statement to make about the process of hydrogenation of liquid vegetable oils?
a. hydrogenation makes the oils more healthy because of the addition of hydrogen to keep them liquid in food products
b. oils that have been hydrogenated are more resistant to oxidation that will spoil them and make them rancid
c. hydrogenation will increase the activity of vitamins found in the oils
d. eating hydrogenated oils has the same health benefits as eating liquid vegetable oils
So far, the DRI Committee has published recommendations for the vitamins and minerals, along with those for carbohydrates, fiber, lipids, proteins, water, and energy.
The absence of a Tolerable Upper Intake Level for a nutrient implies that it is safe to consume in any amount.
Body fluids supply the tissues continuously with energy, oxygen, and nutrients, including water.
Cells are organized into tissues that perform specialized tasks and tissues, in turn, are grouped together to form whole organs.
One of the major disadvantages of the USDA food guide is that is cannot be adapted to other national and cultural cuisines.
On average, one should try to get 100% of the DRI for every nutrient to ensure an adequate intake over time.
The exchange list system highlights the fact that many meats contain more calories from fat than from protein.
Malnutrition includes deficiencies, imbalances, and excesses of nutrients, any of which can be detrimental over time.
Without food to replenish it, the liver's glycogen supply can be depleted within:
a. 1- 3 hours
b. 3- 6 hours
c. 4- 8 hours
d. 6- 9 hours
Which of the following statements is not true about the DRI?
a. the committee that publishes them is comprised of nutrition experts
b. they are minimum requirements, not recommendations
c. they are based on review of available scientific research
d. they are for individuals who are healthy
The compound that gives hot peppers their burning taste is called a:
A person is trying to eat the best diet to reduce the risk of developing chronic disease. She wants to be sure that she will consume adequate nutrients in the best proportions from her foods she selects. Which would be the best DRI recommendation for her to use to ensure she has the best energy nutrient intakes to reduce chronic disease risk?
How many calories are in a food that contains 20 grams of carbohydrate, 8 grams protein, and 5 grams of fat?
A person has has the following vegetables over the past week: carrots, pinto beans, corn, cauliflower, coleslaw, and mashed potatoes. Which of the following vegetable should he eat to be sure he has had representation of each of the subgroups for the week?
b. sweet potato
c. green peas
In the exchange lists, vegetables are categorized according to:
a. carbohydrate content
b. fat content
c. protein content
d. sodium content
Hormones are secreted and releases into the blood by ____________.
Your sister has taken the Healthy Eating Index to evaluate her diet and has received a score of 59. What would the interpretation of her score be?
a. she needs to still improve her intake of foods to meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendations
b. She is choosing the right foods because her score exceeds the average score of the American diet
c. her score is too high so she needs to reduce her calorie intake
d. she is choosing too many fruits and veggies in her diet
Which of the following conditions is the most nutrition responsive?
c. iron- deficiency anemia
d. sickle- cell anemia
A major guideline for healthy people is to limit calorie intakes and obtain more and varied selections of ___________.
a. fruits and vegetables
b. whole grains
c. nonfat or low-fat milk or milk products
d. all of the above
A study conducted in several countries where a high intake of fish and a low intake of animal fat were correlated with a low rate of breast cancer death is an example of a:
a. epidemiological study
b. case study
c. intervention study
d. blind experiment
Which of the following is not one of the major storage systems which store and release nutrients to meet the cells' needs between meals?
c. fat cells
A woman who has begun a new exercise program to keep herself healthy will need to consider that her discretionary calorie allowance:
a. will not change because there is not an adjustment with exercise
b. will decrease as the exercise activity increases
c. will increase as the exercise activity increases
d. will decrease as the nutrient density increases
Three ounces of beef stew offers about the same amount of iron as three ounces of water packed tuna, but the beef contains over 300 calories while the tuna contains about 100 calories. This is an example of:
b. nutrient density
c. dietary variety
Which of the following foods offers the most nutrients per calorie?
c. green peas
The main purpose of the national research projects, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and the Continuing Survey of Food intakes by individuals (CSFII), is to:
a. determine what types of foods are available in grocery stores and supermarkets
b. determine what the nutrient and dietary intakes of the population in out country are
c. identify what foods have been imported from other countries
d. set regulations for food intake in individuals of different ages
One of the characteristics of a nutritious diet is that the foods provide enough of each essential nutrient, fiber, and energy. This principle of diet planning is called:
A gene variation in the cells can occasionally cause an inborn error of metabolism. If this is discovered by a healthcare provider, the advice would be to:
a. not worry because this is a temporary condition
b. eat a special diet that will minimize its potential harm to the body
c. obtain a tissue transplant that will introduce new genes to the cells
d. avoid all processed foods
The blood picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide in the:
c. digestive system
Exchange system systems help primarily with:
b. calorie control
When public health officials were determining the amount of folate to add to grain products in the food supply for fortification, they most likely reviewed which of the following values for that particular vitamin for women of child- bearing age?
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are intended for healthy adults and children ages _______ and older.
Food group primarily dictate:
a. particular foods to choose each day
b. appropriate portion sizes for foods
c. estimates of the amounts of carbohydrate, protein, and fat in foods
d. numbers and sizes of servings to choose each day
A person with heart disease is tole he has to make some changes in his diet and lifestyle practices. He states, "I know that I should make changes because my father and brother both died of heart attacks. "But, I really like to have my big steaks for dinner." He is in what stage of behavior change?
When making food choices, the best types of foods to include in your diet are:
a. natural foods, because they are the most nutritious and complete
b. fast foods, because they are the most readily available
c. whole foods, because they provide the basis of a nutritious diet
d. processed foods, because they are fortified with all missing nutrients
The bottom portion of the Nutrition Facts panel on a food package:
a. is identical on every label
b. lists the Daily Values standards
c. conveys information specific to the food inside the package
d. a and b
e. b and c
Among the cells' most basic needs are _________ and the oxygen with which to burn it.
b. essential nutrients
c. building blocks
Which of the following are the first to defend the body tissues against invaders?
c. T- cells
d. B- cells
The body's circulating fluid(s) is(are):
a. intracellular fluid
d. a and b
e. b and c
Which vegetable subgroup of the USDA Food Guide is not correctly matched with its target nutrient?
a. orange and deep yellow vegetables- Vitamin D
b. starchy vegetables- carbohydrate
c. dark green vegetables- folate
d. legumes- iron and protein
Effects of physical activity on the body include all of the following except:
a. decreased bone density
b. reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases
c. faster wound healing
d. increased lean body tissue
A person in an emergency situation is unable to eat for several weeks. Which of the following would provide the energy that this person would need to survive?
b. liver glycogen
d. muscle glycogen
All of the following nutrients are organic except:
Which of the following people would not be covered by the DRI, based on assumptions made by the DRI committee?
a. Harry, a 35- year- old healthy businessman
b. Cindy, a 21- year- old college athlete
c. Robert, a 20- year- old with cystic fibrosis
d. Joann, a 35- year- old female vegetarian
Which of the following is a property of manufactured functional foods?
a. they are a good regular addition to the diet to make up for inadequate nutrient intakes
b. they have been proven to be beneficial in improving health
c. they have not been shown to pose any health risks with regular consumption
d. they may ace more like a drug than a food in promoting health
When the pancreas detects a high concentration of the blood's sugar, glucose, it releases:
Which of the following foods in the meat, poultry, fish, legumes, eggs, and nuts group of the USDA Food Guide has the highest nutrient density?
a. luncheon meats
b. friend fish
c. duck with skin
d. chicken with no skin