This is the recording of images using x-ray energy. It is also an art and a science:
The ability to do work is called:
Natural Science has two categories they are:
Biological science is the study of _______ matter.
Physical science is the study of _______ matter.
The branch of physical science that studies energy and matter is called:
Energy being transmitted through matter is called:
The Law of Conservation
"Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed" is known as:
atoms and molecules
These are the smallest parts of matter:
protons, neutrons, electrons
Name 3 subatomic particles as pertains to our study guide:
these are inside the nucleus and have a positive charge:
these are inside the nucleus and have neither a positive nor negative charge:
these are outside the nucleus and have a negative charge:
These revolve around the outside of the nucleus:
electron binding energy
Eb stand for:
electron binding energy
Electrons are held in their orbits by this:
kilo-electron volts (keV)
Eb is measured in:
Electrons are held more tightly to the nucleus when they are orbiting ______ to/from the nucleus.
The shell closest to the nucleus is called the ____ shell.
The shell furthest away from the nucleus is called the _____ shell.
This contains elements that are listed according to the # of protons in the nucleus:
stable or balanced
If an element has the same number of protons as electrons it is considered to be:
This occurs when electrons are added or removed from an atom:
Removal of an electron from a stable atom forms a ______ ion.
Addition of an electron to a stable atom forms a _______ ion.
Ionization occurs in every stage of ______ image production.
Occur when the number of protons changes in an element. (not relevant to our study)
The outermost shell cannot have more than 8 electrons is known as the ______ Rule.
The number of electrons on a shell can be determined by this formula:
Make up the body
Why are hydrogen, oxygen and carbon important to radiology? (bullet # 7)
used for x-ray production
Why are molybdenum and tungsten important for radiology? (bullet # 7)
used as contrast media
Why are barium and Iodine important for radiology? (bullet # 7)
Why is lead important for radiology? (bullet # 7)
Work is defined as ______ x _______
Energy is defined as the ability to do ______
Mechanical energy has two categories ______ and _______.
This is defined as stored energy:
This is defined as energy of motion:
This type of energy is measured by temperature and causes atoms and molecules to move:
This is caused by the heating of the filament in a cathode:
This type of energy is created by combiningg chemicals (batteries are a good example)
This type of energy is created by the movement of electrons (light bulb is a good example)
This type of energy is stored in the nucleus of atoms and when released can be converted to electrical energy: (not really part of this course)
This type of energy is the result of electric and or magnetic disturbances in space:
_______ are a form of man-made electromagnetic energy that is formed when high-speed electrons are suddenly stopped.
A chart of all levels of electromagnetic energy.
Electromagnetic Energy (EM)
_________ travels at the speed of light (186,400 mps)
EM is considered both wave and _______.
EM needs no ______ and can travel in a _____
man made, nucleus
X-rays are _____ and Gamma rays originate from the _______ of radioactive elements.
Both x-rays and gamma rays are in the _______
Defined as the number of waves passing a point in a given amount of time:
Frequency is measured in :
This is the distance between wave crests:
angstroms (A with a little circle above the top)
wavelengths are measured in:
Frequency and wavelength are _______ proportional
The higher the frequency the _______ the wavelength
The higher the frequency the more ______ beam.
The higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength, the more penetrating the beam means you have ________ patient exposure.
Frequency is controlled with:
The wavelength of a diagnostic x-ray is about: _____ angstrom to ___-_____ angstrom.
kVp range of diagnostic x-ray is about ______ to ______.
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
Who discovered X-rays?
November 8, 1895
What date were x-rays discovered?
What element caused the x-ray to fluoresce when they were discovered?
The tube used to discover x-rays was called a _______ tube
source, target, high voltage and vacuum
4 conditions necessary to produce x-rays
cathode is the ________ side of the tube
Tungsten has a high ______ and so is used for filament
Dual focus tubes have ______; small and large.
Small focus filament should be used when ever possible and it has a ______ resolution.
mA setting determines how _____ the filament gets. (Like a dimmer switch)
mA is amount of ______ flowing from - to + per second use.
Focusing cup ______ and ______ electron stream using negative charge.
Concerning the Line Focus Principle, the width of effective focal spot is determined by the width of the _______ focal spot.
Small filament produces a ______ actual focal spot and produces _______ resolution.
Focal spot size is the decision of the ______.
Anode target angle must be at least ____ degrees to cover a 14x17 casette @ 40" SID
As target angle increases, width of effective focal spot _______.
Target surface housed there, conducts heat out of tube, conducts voltage back to cathode circuitry.
The anode + side of tube serves 3 functions:
A rotating anode ______ heat better and lasts longer.
Target is made of ______.
Glass envelope, stator, rotor, protective steel housing, lead lining, dielectric oil, gaskets
Component of the tube assembly are: (7)
stator is on the ____ of the envelope
______ turns the rotor
rotor is _____ the envelope
gaskets _____ to prevent heat from exploding the tube.
_____ _______ is between the steel housing and the oil.
off focus radiation
This is produced when the (e-) inside the tube strike a surface other than the target.
off focus radiation
This causes ghosting
Off focus radiation comprises ___ to ____ percentage of the primary beam.
Off focus radiation is ______ to control.
Anode Heel Effect
The intensity of the beam is greater at the cathode side and less at the anode side of the beam. This is caused by the:
The anode heel effect is the result of target interactions being absorbed by the _____
The anode heel effect is only produced with a _____ beam width.
The anode heel effect can be used to practically _____ the image.
Tube rating charts
This is used to determine if selected technical factors will be acceptable (for the tubes)
Each x-ray tube has its own _____.
Anode Cooling Curve
This is used to determine how long a tube requires to cool down to a usable temperature.
Rectification constant depends on the ______ power the machine has.
X-ray tubes require _____ current.
If a power supply is AC 60 Hz, meaning 60 cycles per second, how many times does the current change direction in one second?
Generators operate by an armature rotating in a magnetic field and cutting magnetic _____.
This is the process of changing AC into DC current:
These are placed in the path of the AC current, to enforce a one way street: (4 of them)
On half-wave or self-rectification blocks opposing flow, current becomes direct but only ____ is useful.
Use proper warm up procedures
Don't hold rotor longer than necessary
Don't make many consecutive exposures at tube load limit
Park the tube so collimator faces down
Don't swing tube rapidly
Check tube rating charts if uncertain
Use locks properly
Use highest speed intensifying screens
Recommendations for extending tube life:
____ of target interactions are converted to x-ray's.
x-ray beam is comprised of ______
X-rays are produced when incident (e-) from thermionic emission at filament strike tungsten target and _____ target material.
there are ____ types of interactions that produce photons in the diagnostic range.
This type of interaction means braking.
_______ interactions occur when kVp is over 70.
When a hole is formed in K shell and an (e-) from L shell moves in to fill hole. Photon is emitted at that point. Now M shell (e-) moves into hole in L shell, etc. This is called a :