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First Semester Exam

scientific method

observation or problem, hypohtesis to explain it, test hypothesis, results of test or analyze, draw conclusion, publish

characteristics of all living organisms

made of cells, organized, use energy, homeostasis, growth, reproduction

3 domains

Eukarya, Bacteria, Archaea

autotroph

an organism that makes its own food

heterotroph

an organism that cannot make its own food

eukaryote

A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

prokaryote

A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

Thomas Malthus

Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production

James Hutton

Scottish geologist who described the processes that have shaped the surface of the earth, proposed that the earth is shaped by geological forces that took place over extremely long periods of time estimated the earth to be millions of years old

Jean Baptiste Lamarck

French naturalist who proposed that evolution resulted from the inheritance of acquired characteristics

Charles Lyell

Principles on Geology- the earth is a very old planet that is constantly changing; slowly- gradualism

Alfred Wallace

Naturalist who came to a similar conclusion as Darwin that natural selection could explain the origin of species, biological diversity, and similarities among related life forms.

Charles Darwin

English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection set forth his theory of evolution

artificial selection

selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms

population

All the members of one species in a particular area

variations

any difference between individuals of the same species

ecosystem

collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment

limiting factors

factor that causes the growth of a population to decrease

natural selection

a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment

survival of the fittest

organisms that are most adapted to their environment survive

inherited variation

variation in the parent genes being passed down through genetics

descent with modification

principle that each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time

embryology

the branch of biology that studies the formation and early development of living organisms

homologous structures

similar structures that related species have inherited from a common ancestor

gene pool

combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population

alleles

one of a number of different forms of a gene

mutations

changes in the genetic material

gene shuffling

the recombination of different genes within the genome

single gene trait

trait controlled by a single gene that has two alleles

polygenic trait

trait controlled by two or more genes

directional selection

form of natural selection in which the entire curve moves; occurs when individuals at one end of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end of the curve

stabilizing selection

form of natural selection by which the center of the curve remains in its current position; occurs when individuals near the center of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end

disruptive selection

form of natural selection in which a single curve splits into two; occurs when individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle

genetic drift

random change in allele frequencies that occurs in small populations

founder's effect

an extreme example of genetic drift; a small part of a population settles in an area far away from the rest of the population, resulting in large amounts of genetic variation.

reproductive isolation

separation of species or populations so that they cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring

geographic isolation

form of reproductive isolation in which two populations are separated physically by geographic barriers such as rivers, mountains, or stretches of water

behavioral isolation

form of reproductive isolation in which two populations have differences in courtship rituals or other types of behavior that prevent them from interbreeding

temporal isolation

form of reproductive isolation in which two populations reproduce at different times

adaptive radiation

the development of many different forms from an originally homogeneous group of organisms as they fill different ecological niches

convergent evolution

process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments

coevolution

process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other

adhesion

attraction between unlike molecules

cohesion

attraction between molecules of the same substance

root pressure

The upward push of xylem sap in the vascular tissue of roots.

active transport

the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy

transpiration

the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants

mesophyll

The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis (spongy and palisade)

meristematic tissue

plant tissue found only in the tips of shoots and roots; responsible for plant growth

parenchyma

type of ground-tissue cell with a thin cell wall and large central vacuole

stomata

the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move

monocots

angiosperms that have only one seed leaf

dicots

angiosperms that have two seed leaves

hypha

any of the threadlike filaments forming the mycelium of a fungus

mycelium

many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass; comprises the bodies of multicellular fungi

sporangium

organ containing or producing spores

fitness

Charles Darwin called the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its specific environment

reproductive isolation

A factor that is necessary for the formation of a new species is

coevolution

A plant evolves a high level of poison that enables it to defend itself against insects. Soon an insect that prefers to eat this plant evolves an enzyme that breaks down the poison. This is an example of

if species living on different islands had once been members of the same species.

Based on the adaptations Charles Darwin observed in finches and tortoises in the Galápagos, he wondered

prevents interbreeding between the populations.

The geographic isolation of two populations of a species tends to increase differences between their gene pools because it

stabilizing selection

Figure 17-2 shows highest fitness toward the center of the curve. When individuals with an average form of a trait have the highest fitness, the result is

knowledge about the structure of DNA.

Darwin's concept of natural selection was NOT influenced by

useful support for his theory.

Charles Darwin viewed the fossil record as

emigration

In a certain population of 100 individuals, one fourth of the individuals have the genotype AA, half have the genotype Aa, and one fourth have the genotype aa. One day, 10 individuals with the genotype aa leave the area and cross a river into a new habitat. Which of these processes has changed the population's gene pool?

non-random mating

Which factor would most likely disrupt genetic equilibrium in a large population?

The population is evolving.

In a fox population, the allele frequency of a gene for red fur changes from 20 percent to 30 percent. What can you say about that population of foxes?

fewer phenotypes

Compared to a polygenic trait, a single-gene trait tends to have

the actions of organisms as they use or fail to use body structures.

Lamarck's ideas about evolution include the concept that differences among the traits of organisms arise as a result of

founders arrived

Which is the first step that occurred in the speciation of the Galápagos finches?

temporal isolation

What situation might develop in a population having some plants whose flowers open at midday and other plants whose flowers open late in the day?

no natural selection takes place

According to the Hardy-Weinberg principle, genetic equilibrium would be more likely in a population of mice if

Mutations have arisen that may have altered allele frequencies.

A farmer sprays insecticide on his crops to kill unwanted insects. Most of the insects die, and the chemicals have the effect of damaging the DNA of the insects that are not killed. Which of these has happened?

chance

In genetic drift, the allele frequencies in a gene pool change because of

the nearly universal genetic code

Molecular evidence in support of natural selection includes

a bell-shaped curve

The frequency of phenotypes for a typical polygenic trait is most often illustrated as

meiosis

During fungal reproduction, which of the following processes is first to occur after the nuclei of opposite mating types fuse in order to reduce the chromosome number back to normal for a fungus?

are often the first organisms to enter barren environments.

Lichens play an important role in soil formation because they

pollen grain

In seed plants, the entire male gametophyte is contained in a

zygomycota

Bread mold belongs to which group?

vessel elements

In angiosperms, xylem consists of tracheids and

old xylem that is no longer conducting water

Which of the following describes the heartwood of a tree?

ovules

In gymnosperms, the female gametophyte develops inside the

are carried to female reproductive structures by wind or animals.

During pollination in seed plants, pollen grains

parallel leaf veins

Unlike a dicot, a monocot has

More oxygen is produced during photosynthesis than the plant needs for cellular respiration, so the plant needs to release the extra oxygen.

If plants need oxygen for cellular respiration, then why do plants release oxygen into the atmosphere?

cause less water to be pulled up from the plant's roots.

The closing of a plant's stomata will

branched veins, flower parts in multiples of 4 and 5, taproot, and rings of vascular tissue

Dicots have

parallel veins, flower parts in multiples of 3, broad fibrous roots, vascular bundles

Monocots have

body space in some invertebrates where digestive and circulatory functions occur.

A gastrovascular cavity is the

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