Where is Galicia located, and what does it look like?
Located in northern Spain; looks like Ireland.
Where are Castilla and Extremadura, and what do they look like?
Located in Central Spain; orange-brown plains.
What is the climate like in central Spain?
Very dry; not much snow in winter but very windy. In summer, very hot.
Where is Madrid located and what is their saying?
Located in central Spain; "6 months of winter, 6 months of hell."
Where is Andalucia located, and what is it known for?
Located in south; known for their olive groves.
What waters surround Spain?
Mediterranean in the south and east, Cantabrico in the north.
Where are the islas Baleares (part of Spain) located?
Where are the islas Canarias (part of Spain) located?
What are the names of the two cities of Spain that are located in Africa?
Ceuta and Melilla
How many autonomous communities are there in Spain?
How is each autonomous community like Spain?
They have their own governor, congress of deputies, and elections.
What happened in the year 711?
The moros invaded Spain.
What was the capital of the moros?
What was Cordoba like during the Middle Ages?
It was the most cultured of Europe, while the rest of the continent lived in darkness.
What words did the moros influence?
El azucar, la naranja, la berenjena; words that start with al-
What is the significance of the year 718?
The Spanish won their first battle against the moros in Covadonga, beginning the Reconquista.
What did the reyes cristianos do with the land they reclaimed from the moros?
They formed independent kingdoms, resulting in political disunity.
What happened in the year 1469?
Isabel de Castilla and Fernando de Aragon married and established an absolute monarchy.
What did the Catholic rulers (Isabel and Fernando) want?
Territorial, political, and religious unity.
What happened in 1481?
Isabel and Fernando established a tribunal inquisition, which led to the expulsion of Jews who refused to convert.
Where did the Jews who were kicked out of Spain go?
North Africa, Greece, and Turkey.
What happened in 1492?
Fernando and Isabel's troops entered Granada and took the city, ending the Reconquista; also, Cristobal Colon left southern Spain to discover a new route to India.
What are the three geographic zones that Ecuador and Peru are divided into?
In the west, la costa (el litoral in Peru); in the central, la sierra or la cordillera; in the east, la zona amazonica (el Oriente in Ecuador, la selva in Peru)
Why don't many people live in the amazon?
It's very hot, and vegetation is dense and inaccessible.
Why isnt the coast of Ecuador and Peru very hot or rainy, despite being by the equator?
A cold current of the Pacific, called the current Humboldt, lowers the temperature and precipitation.
Why doesnt Bolivia have a coast?
It lost access to the sea in the war with Chile, called the war of the Pacific.
Who was el Inca?
The "overlord" of the Incans; a god-man who was called "Hijo del Sol"
What was the basis of Incan society?
La familia or el ayllu, a community formed for a set of families.
Who was the god creator that the Incas believed in?
Who was the god that created the sun?
Who was the god that created the earth?
What did the Incas associate with hell?
Cold and hunger
What did the destiny of the Incas depend on?
Their actions and social status.
What was the base of sustenance for the Incas?
What was chuno?
Where did Simon Bolivar fight?
In the north, in Venezuela and Colombia.
Where did Jose de San Martin fight?
Argentina and Chile, and he continued along the coast of Lima.
Where did San Martin and Bolivar reunite?
Of San Martin and Bolivar, which one continued fighting?
What was Bolivar's dream?
To form a grand political entity.