McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Congress possesses "implied powers"<--which are those not listed in the Constitution
Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
Limit amount of $ you give to a candidate, but does not limit how much of their own $ a candidate can spend.
Clinton v. City of NY (1998)
President doesn't have the power to make legislation. line item veto for the president is unconstitutional.
Jeb Bush v. Gore (2000)
all votes have to be counted equally. there hase to be a set process for and to recount votes, which Fl. did not have.
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
Established Lemon test- law to be constitutional must have a "secular legislative purpose" and neither religious purpose and no exsessive gov't involvement.
Westside Community Schools v. Mergens (1990)
Schools cannot deny groups from meeting based on content of their speech.
Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe (2000)
Can't say religious thing b/c gov't pays for stadium and announcer thing at a school sponsored event
Reynolds v. US (1879)
Gov't can limit what you practice--> Practice is differnt then belief. **can limit polygamy b/c it is a practice of beliefs
Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972)
Wisconsin could not force kids to go back to school for 2 years b/c it violated free exercise of religion
Employment Division, Department of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith (1990)
Ligit. gov't reason to limit drug use
Church of the Lukuani Babalu Ave., v. City of Hialeah, Fl. (1993)
City cannot specifically target certain activity or certain religious behavior
Schenck v. US (1919)
Create clear and present danger test...things are okay in peace, are/may not be okay in wartime
Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire (1942)
Obscenity and fighting words are not protected by 1st amendment freedom of speech
Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969)
Can only limit speech when it is a direct incitement. imminent lawless action
Miller v. California (1975)
Created Miller test to decide what is obscene. Gov't can regulate how adult/obscene material is distributed
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
You cannot ban flag burning; its symbolic speech that is protected in the 1st amendment
Near v. Minnesota (1931)
Established that there are no prior restraintd for newspapers Gov't could not censor/prohibit a publication in advance
NY Times v. Sullivan (1964)
First Amendment protects the publication of all statements, even false ones, about the conduct of public officials except when statements are made with actual malice (with knowledge that they are false or in reckless disregard of their truth or falsity)
NY Times Co. v. US (1971)
Has to directly relate to national security...if it does you cannot publish it.
NAACP v. Alabama (1958)
You have the right of association--> gov't cannot keep a group from gathering
Weeks v. US (1914)
Created exclusionary rule--> obtain things against you illegally then they can't use it against them in court
New Jersey v. TLO (1984)
Reasonable suspicion (lower standard; not as much evidence needed to search) for you to search someone at a school.
Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006)
cannot deny rights to be at trial people in Guantonamo Bay must be tried by a civil court
Kelo v. City of New London, CT (2005)
With just compensation and for public use, gov't can take private property
Civil Rights Cases (1883)
Moral reinforcement of Jim Crow Laws-- Shut down advancements from 13th, 14th, 15th amendments
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Seperate but equal is okay--> Segregation is okay, didn't count as discrimination.
Heart of Atlanta Hotel v. US (1964)
Gov't can regulate public accomodations b/c it relates to interstate commerce
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)
Use race for concideration, but cannot save spots